Loading...
  • genomes
  • Although all of the DI genomes studied to date are shorter than the standard viral genome and are deletion mutants, it is possible some DI genome may contain an altered nucleic acid sequence(s) rather than a deletion(s) and become defective as well as interfering. (springer.com)
  • Complementation of HBV genomes defective in expressing the S or L protein and therefore incompetent to form virions was possible with the closely related WHV S protein or a WHV pre-S-HBV S chimera, respectively, but not with the less related DHBV S or L protein or with a DHBV L-HBV S chimera. (asm.org)
  • To determine whether intact proviruses amplified from DNA are more closely related to rebound viruses than those obtained from VOA, we sequenced HIV proviral genomes from CD4 + T cells of individuals who underwent analytical treatment interruption. (pnas.org)
  • ERVs are found at many loci in host DNA and also in the genomes of large DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses and poxviruses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • HIV and SIV genomes encode several auxiliary proteins which have increasingly shown their importance in the virus-host relationship. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The order Mononegavirales comprises highly diversified eukaryotic viruses with a monopartite negative strand RNA genome (rarely bipartite genomes), which includes important human pathogens [e.g., rabies virus (RABV), measles virus (MeV), Nipah virus (NiV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), Ebola virus (EBOV)] ( Lamb, 2013 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Since gene products as well as RNA genomes of these non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses share structural and functional similarities, they are believed to have evolved from a common ancestor. (frontiersin.org)
  • proteins
  • The defective ribosomal product (DRiP) hypothesis of endogenous Ag processing posits that rapidly degraded forms of nascent proteins are a major source of peptide ligands for MHC class I molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • This rapidity of presentation, coupled with the relatively long half-life ( t 1/2 ) of most viral proteins, engendered the defective ribosomal product (DRiP) hypothesis of Ag presentation: a subset of newly synthesized proteins are defective in some manner and rapidly degraded intracellularly, yielding peptides for MHC class I Ag presentation to enable rapid immunosurveillance of viral and cellular translation products ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Our laboratory has exploited the specificity of 25-D1.16 for K b -SIINFEKL complexes to demonstrate that SIINFEKL generation is closely tied kinetically to the synthesis of OVA, the natural source of SIINFEKL, and a number of artificial chimeric proteins engineered to express SIINFEKL ( 3 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This contrasts with the ability of, e.g., rhabdoviruses or retroviruses, to incorporate envelope proteins even from unrelated viruses. (asm.org)
  • These antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) produced by the immune system to respond to bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxins that invade the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Vpx therefore acts similarly to other HIV auxiliary proteins (Vif, Vpu, Nef) known to inactivate cellular factors in order to create an advantageous environment for the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins adopt an organized three-dimensional structure closely related with their function that can be regulated by the interaction with other biomolecules and/or small organic molecules. (bifi.es)
  • These studies provided insights into how NNS RNA viruses synthesize 5′-capped mRNAs using their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L proteins equipped with an unconventional mRNA capping enzyme, namely GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase (PRNTase), domain. (frontiersin.org)
  • PRNTase or PRNTase-like domains are evolutionally conserved among L proteins of all known NNS RNA viruses and their related viruses belonging to Jingchuvirales , a newly established order, in the class Monjiviricetes , suggesting that they may have evolved from a common ancestor that acquired the unique capping system to replicate in a primitive eukaryotic host. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rous
  • That was the year that Peyton Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the isolation of his eponymous virus published in 1911, representing a record 55 year incubation period between reporting a discovery and the award [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • vitro
  • 2005) described that it is possible to extend the natural host range of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1 (CHV1) to several fungal species that are closely related to Cryphonectria parasitica using in vitro virus transfection techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectious
  • When produced in the presence of APOBEC3G, vif-defective virus is non-infectious. (epfl.ch)
  • Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The research collaboration will focus on poliovirus, the virus responsible for poliomyelitis , a highly infectious disease that mainly affects children, and 1 in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis 3 . (ibm.com)
  • Many other illnesses are also produced by infectious viruses and microorganisms, and a way of stopping them could be to block a step of their vital cycle involving a protein or biomolecule. (bifi.es)
  • replicate
  • It is generally assumed that the natural host range of mycoviruses is confined to closely related vegetability compatibility groups that allow for cytoplasmic fusion, but some mycoviruses can replicate in taxonomically different fungal hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interference hinders the parent virus and enables the antiviral agents to replicate and spread, until the virus is completely gone and no more of the essential elements the agents lack remain available. (ibm.com)
  • vaccinia
  • In all of these studies, we used recombinant vaccinia viruses (VVs) to express SIINFEKL-containing source Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Earlier research by Dr. Leung and his colleagues suggested that LL-37 is critical in controlling the spread of vaccinia virus. (rxpgnews.com)
  • When exposed to vaccinia virus, the skin samples from healthy volunteers and from those with psoriasis reacted by producing more LL-37. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Smallpox vaccine, which is made with live vaccinia virus (a close relative of the virus that causes smallpox), has not been routinely given in the United States since the early 1970s. (rxpgnews.com)
  • mammalian
  • Later identification of mammalian tumor viruses in the 1930s by Richard Shope and John Bittner, and in the 1950s by Ludwik Gross, sparked the first intense interest in tumor virology by suggesting the possibility of a similar causal role for viruses in human cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • fungi
  • Mycovirology is the study of viruses infecting fungi, also called mycoviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi are frequently infected with two or more unrelated viruses and also with defective dsRNA and/or satellite dsRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also viruses that simply use fungi as vectors and are distinct from mycoviruses, because they cannot reproduce in the fungal cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • The defective and parasitic nature of DIPs may someday be used to reduce and even completely suppress the occurrence of the vaccine-derived disease types, while also helping to prevent the virus from spreading just as effectively as with traditional vaccines. (ibm.com)
  • The vaccine is based on a combination of the PeviPRO and PeviTER platforms using synthetic peptide antigens from the hepatitis C virus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • parasites
  • When co-occurring with their parent, disease-causing viruses, DIPs act as parasites by stealing the very essential elements they lack. (ibm.com)
  • inability
  • After displacing the virus, the antiviral agents will die out because of their inability to survive alone. (ibm.com)
  • tumor
  • Tumor virologists additionally recognized that viruses could serve as powerful discovery tools, leading to revolutionary breakthroughs in the 1970s and 1980s that included the concept of the oncogene, the identification of the p53 tumor suppressor, and the function of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The subsequent availability of more advanced molecular technologies paved the way in the 1980s and 1990s for the identification of additional human tumor viruses-human T-cell leukemia virus type 1, hepatitis C virus, and Kaposi's sarcoma virus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • protein
  • Many enveloped viruses exploit the class E vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) pathway to bud from cells, and use peptide motifs to recruit specific class E VPS factors. (rupress.org)
  • Defective structural arrangements can prevent protein interaction with other molecules, provoking many different illnesses in human beings. (bifi.es)
  • species
  • Dengue viruses are transmitted by several species of mosquitoes and cause dengue fever, which is characterized by fever, joint pain and a skin rash similar to measles. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The updated 9th ICTV report on virus taxonomy lists over 90 mycovirus species covering 10 viral families, of which 20% were unassigned to a genus or sometimes not even to a family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spread
  • Defective viruses, thought for decades to be essentially garbage unrelated to the transmission of normal viruses, now appear able to play an important role in the spread of disease, new research by UCLA life scientists indicates. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • What we have shown is that this defective virus, which everyone had thought was useless or even detrimental to the fitness of the functional virus, actually appears to have made it better able to spread," he says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Symptoms include: Reduced yield Slow and aberrant mycelial growth Waterlogging of tissue malformation Premature maturation Increased post-harvest deterioration (reduced shelf life) Mushrooms have shown no resistance to the virus, and so control has had to be via hygienic practises to stop the spread of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomic
  • The lack of genomic data often hampers a conclusive assignment to already established groups of viruses or makes it impossible to erect new families and genera. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • We conclude that co-occlusion of genotypically distinct virions in each OB is an adaptive mechanism that favours the maintenance of virus diversity during insect-to-insect transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • sequence
  • We can see from the gene sequence of the defective version that it is the same lineage and is a continued propagation of the virus," says Lloyd-Smith, who holds UCLA's De Logi Chair in Biological Sciences. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The latter is true for many unencapsidated dsRNA viruses, which are assumed to be viral, but missing sequence data prevented their classification so far. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • The information is vital, as it gives quick and reliable method to detect acute conditions such as ventilatory failure, malposition of tracheal tubes, defective breathing circuits, and circulatory failure in both intubated and non-intubated patients, which is life threatening. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • either
  • The idea has always been that defective viruses are either meaningless or detrimental," says James O. Lloyd-Smith, a UCLA assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology and the senior author of the research. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • DiGeorge syndrome is caused either by inheritance of a defective chromosome 22 or by a new defect in chromosome 22 in the fetus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • component
  • APOBEC3G is closely related to APOBEC1, the central component of an RNA-editing complex that deaminates a cytosine residue in apoB messenger RNA. (epfl.ch)
  • Type
  • To try and help solve the problem, biologists and mathematicians from IBM, UCSF, Stanford University, and the University of Haifa are working side-by-side on a DARPA-funded research project to engineer a new type of antiviral agent against viruses such as polio. (ibm.com)