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  • gene
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning . (readtiger.com)
  • molecular
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production , affinity tagging , single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (readtiger.com)
  • vectors
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (readtiger.com)
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (readtiger.com)
  • efficiency
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (readtiger.com)
  • commonly
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes , but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters , non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (readtiger.com)