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  • Transgenic
  • Therefore, if any segment of DNA from any organism is inserted into a DNA segment containing the molecular sequences required for DNA replication, and the resulting recombinant DNA is introduced into the organism from which the replication sequences were obtained, then the foreign DNA will be replicated along with the host cell's DNA in the transgenic organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes , but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters , non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (readtiger.com)
  • That is, these plasmids could serve as cloning vectors to carry genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the 1970s, our understanding of genetics and molecular biology was severely hampered by an inability to isolate and study individual genes from complex organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning . (readtiger.com)
  • vectors
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production , affinity tagging , single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (readtiger.com)
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (readtiger.com)
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (readtiger.com)
  • molecular
  • Molecular cloning methods are central to many contemporary areas of modern biology and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This changed dramatically with the advent of molecular cloning methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning takes advantage of the fact that the chemical structure of DNA is fundamentally the same in all living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning is similar to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that it permits the replication of DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that molecular cloning involves replication of the DNA in a living microorganism, while PCR replicates DNA in an in vitro solution, free of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • origin of replicat
  • To amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism, that sequence must be linked to an origin of replication , which is a sequence of DNA capable of directing the propagation of itself and any linked sequence. (readtiger.com)
  • form
  • Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for more than 50 thousand years. (readtiger.com)