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  • cell
  • What cell parts would you need to clone a human? (coursehero.com)
  • 6 Donor nucleus is transferred into empty egg cell Remove the from a recipient egg cell Transfer donated into an egg cell (lacks a nucleus) "Cloned" zygote begins to divideā€¦ Empty cell discarded Nucleus from egg cell is discarded. (coursehero.com)
  • Recipient egg receives new nucleus - the "cloned" egg cell begins to develop Donor nucleus (from person to be cloned) is transferred into the empty egg cell Empty egg (incubator for new nucleus! (coursehero.com)
  • 2) Syringe needle picks up a single donor nucleus 3) "Cloned" nucleus is injected into the cytoplasm of the empty egg cell. (coursehero.com)
  • genetic
  • Genetic issues can be duplicated if clones are made, for example if someone has a genetic heart problem and they cloned cells from the heart, all the cloned cells would also have the genetic problem. (smore.com)
  • Organ cloning transplants affect organs physically because before the transplant they are already experiencing an organ failure, so the surgery can be very dangerous because the cells being used to clone a new organ can have a genetic disorder and can ruin the whole process. (smore.com)
  • A considerable minority still disagrees with women exercising any reproductive choices, undergoing prenatal genetic diagnosis or availing themselves of assisted reproduction treatment. (zavos.org)
  • The transfer of such cloned embryonic stem cells into a patient would be therefore extremely hazardous: these cells might provoke genetic disorders, or initiate leukemias or other cancers. (vatican.va)
  • This asexual form of reproduction would bypass the usual 'shuffling' of genes that makes every individual unique in his/her genome and would arbitrarily fix the genotype in one particular configuration, (12) with predictable negative genetic consequences for the human genepool. (vatican.va)
  • Clones, who will be twins displaced in time, and who will therefore have very different life experiences, will likely share even fewer similarities with their genetic forebears. (readthehook.com)
  • Many of the surviving clones are plagued with serious physiological and genetic problems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is not yet known whether clones will develop and age normally, or whether subtle failures in genomic reprogramming or genetic imprinting might lead to various defects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Dr Gerald Schatten of the University of Pittsburgh and colleagues report in today's issue of the journal Science that in lab tests, cloned monkey cells were not capable of replicating their genetic material accurately. (abc.net.au)
  • The genetic similarity between monkeys and humans means the findings raise serious questions about the feasibility of human reproductive cloning with existing technology. (abc.net.au)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post . (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, it appears that developmental problems in clones arise not from genetic mutations, but from changes in the normal program of gene activation, or expression. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Clones or cloning is an artificial manner of production, where an identical genetic copy of an organism is produced. (beautyobservatory.gq)
  • All of the genetic material of the clone derived from one parent. (beautyobservatory.gq)
  • To date, the most important practical application of the cloning of animals the multiplication of animals which are hereby at the same time by means of genetic engineering are genetically modified. (beautyobservatory.gq)
  • A combination of genetic engineering and cloning makes it possible to very precisely to turn off a gene or adding, enabling fast transgenic animals can be made. (beautyobservatory.gq)
  • A clone is an exact copy, but a genetic copy of the original. (beautyobservatory.gq)
  • Is it significant that the cloned child would inherit a genetic identity lived in advance by another and, in some cases, the genetic identity of the cloned child's rearing parent? (georgetown.edu)
  • Is it significant that cloned children would be the first human beings whose genetic identity was entirely known and selected in advance? (georgetown.edu)
  • Human cloning could allow couples at risk of generating children with genetic disease to have healthy children. (georgetown.edu)
  • For example, if both parents carried one copy of a recessive gene for the same heritable disorder, cloning might allow them to ensure that their child does not inherit the known genetic disease (without having to resort to using donor gametes or practicing preimplantation or prenatal genetic diagnosis and elimination of afflicted embryos or fetuses). (georgetown.edu)
  • For example, if no genetic match could be found for a sick child needing a kidney or bone marrow transplant, and the parents had planned to have another child, cloning could potentially serve the human goods of beginning a new life and saving an existing one. (georgetown.edu)
  • cows
  • Cloning animals specifically livestock has greatly impacted the environment by producing more milk and dairy from cloned cows. (smore.com)
  • Also because cloned cows also provide more meat. (smore.com)
  • LOWELL -- When cloning pioneer Dr. James Robl first began traveling down the path of embryos and cell nuclei, he just wanted to make a few good cows. (uml.edu)
  • But the agricultural aspect of cloning -- the possibility of providing dairy farmers with more and better cows -- was always the primary goal. (uml.edu)
  • Robl cloned two cows from a bovine named Zita, who produced huge amounts of milk and was ranked as the top cow in the country. (uml.edu)
  • Robl has also done work that transforms cows into producers of human antibodies. (uml.edu)
  • By using cloning techniques, and replacing a cow's antibody genes with a human's, researchers can inject the cow with a vaccine, which forces the cows to produce antibodies to fight off the weakened virus. (uml.edu)
  • On the farm, cloning breeds more productive cows , faster horses, sheep with better wool. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • infertile couples
  • Once the public understands the limitations of cloning- e.g., one can't bring back the dead- human cloning will likely be used mostly by infertile couples who have no other choice for bearing biologically related children. (readthehook.com)
  • Although some say that creating a cloned child should be allowed for infertile couples, the number of couples for whom cloning would be the only means to have a child is very small, and once cloning was perfected and permitted for one group it would be all but impossible to contain. (csmonitor.com)
  • For instance, Zavos and Antinori, mentioned earlier, aimed to develop cloning to aid infertile couples -- to the tune of approximately $50,000 for the service. (howstuffworks.com)
  • experiments
  • Moreover, a non-human primate model of cloning, which would be necessary in order to conduct experiments to establish safety before attempting therapeutic experiments in human beings, has yet to be developed (10). (vatican.va)
  • In fact, the current (1990) Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act (HFE Act 1990) already allows the mixing of human and animal gametes (an ovum and a sperm) but this is after licensing for specific experiments and only for the purpose of testing the fertility or normality of sperm and requires that the result of the mixed gametes is destroyed no later than the two cell stage. (lynnejones.org.uk)
  • The unintended consequences of human knowledge and curiosity are easily recognized in technologies of atom splitting (bombs and waste), agriculture (land devastation), and unethical medical experiments. (ethicsdaily.com)
  • embryonic stem
  • But federal restrictions on human embryonic stem-cell research have prompted several state governments to take matters into their own hands. (npr.org)
  • A researcher holds a box containing viles of human embryonic stem-cell cultures at a lab in La Jolla, Ca. After approving nearly $45 million for embryonic stem-cell research in February, California's stem-cell agency has authorized another $75.7 million to fund research in the field. (npr.org)
  • Embryonic stem cell research, which uses cells found in three- to five-day-old human embryos to seek cures for a host of chronic diseases, has sparked a major debate in the United States. (pewforum.org)
  • On April 28, researchers published a study in Nature regarding their creation of the first disease-specific diploid-state human embryonic stem cell for type I diabetes. (outerplaces.com)
  • Many in the international scientific community believe that the promise of stem cell-based studies or therapies will be realized only if we can derive new human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines. (jci.org)
  • nucleus
  • Theoretically, tissues generated from cells cloned from a patient's own adult nucleus should not trigger an immune response, but it is possible that subtle differences caused by the foreign cytoplasm in the donor egg might cause a rejection response. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When an animal is cloned, the nucleus of a mature adult cell is removed and inserted into an egg whose nucleus has been removed. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • transplants
  • Organ cloning transplants will affect our future and have a great impact because it will make it easier for people who significantly need and organ to receive it quicker and more efficiently without being put on a waiting list for one. (smore.com)
  • biological
  • human reproductive cloning is not an ethical issue, it's simply a biological issue. (uml.edu)
  • From a biological standpoint, bringing cloned human embryos to birth would be dangerous for the human species. (vatican.va)
  • It states in part that the district "understands that the teaching of some scientific subjects such as biological evolution, the chemical origins of life, global warming and human cloning , can cause controversy and that some teachers may be unsure of the district's expectations concerning how they should present information on such subjects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • No, we are not respecting the rights of others through cloning as we shall be subjecting the others, especially the original biological humans, to a curtailment of their natural rights as these rights will be subdivided further. (slideserve.com)
  • identical
  • We should treat all clones like we would treat identical twins or triplets. (readthehook.com)
  • Some lower organisms, such as protozoans, plants exclusively produced by cell division in which two identical clones arise, even the verb cloning is not used here. (beautyobservatory.gq)
  • The human body occasionally clones a fertilized egg resulting in the birth of "identical twins. (ethicsdaily.com)
  • Facts about identical twins, parent-child resemblance, and what happens when parents seek to replace a dead child are fascinating in their own right, and provide useful analogies for the implications of human cloning. (waterstones.com)
  • mice
  • Using DNA microarray technology, the team analyzed more than 10,000 genes from liver and placenta cells in cloned mice and found that up to four percent of the genes do not function normally. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • Using a special technique called DNA microarray analysis, in which large numbers of genes are examined on a gene chip, the researchers were able to measure the functioning of more than 10,000 genes in cells from cloned mice. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
  • dignity
  • Thus, the Holy See earnestly encourages investigations that are being carried out in the fields of medicine and biology, with the goal of curing diseases and of improving the quality of life of all, provided that they are respectful of the dignity of the human being. (vatican.va)
  • 13) From an anthropological standpoint, most people recognize that cloning is offensive to human dignity. (vatican.va)
  • People intuitively understand that creating a child by cloning would be an affront to human dignity and individuality, would serve no good purpose, and should be banned. (csmonitor.com)
  • moral
  • But it is hard to see why this age difference might present an ethical problem- or give clones a different moral status. (readthehook.com)
  • One moral objection often heard is that cloned children would be not ends in themselves, but would be means for their parents' self-aggrandizement (not to mention the means of aggrandizement for Raelian beliefs). (readthehook.com)
  • We will begin by formulating the best moral case for cloning-to-produce-children describing both the specific purposes it might serve and the philosophic and moral arguments made in its favor. (georgetown.edu)
  • From there we will move to the moral case against cloning-to-produce-children. (georgetown.edu)
  • tissue
  • Thus far, these human replacement cells appear to function normally in vitro, raising the possibility for their application in the treatment of devastating chronic diseases affecting these tissue types. (bio.org)
  • Ultimately, the use of cloning and stem cell technologies could lead to the growth of replacement tissue in laboratories, which would avoid all the usual transplant problems of rejection. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Cloned cells could be used to create replacement tissue for diseased hearts, pancreatic cells for diabetics, treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, nerve cells for victims of spinal cord injuries, and skin cells for burn victims. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if the effort eventually succeeds, the only frozen tissue sample comes from a female, so it will only produce female clones. (smore.com)
  • theoretically
  • The following background paper highlights BIO's perspective on the difference between using cloning technology to theoretically clone a human being and the beneficial uses of cloning technology in medicine and agriculture. (bio.org)
  • Brave New W
  • Perhaps the first step will be the production of a clone from a single fertilized egg, as in Brave New World . (wikipedia.org)
  • Many works of literature and film have explored cloning as a dystopic concept, such as Aldous Huxley's "Brave New World" and the film/novel " Never Let Me Go. (outerplaces.com)
  • technology to clone
  • Socially, cloning could be an issue because the availability of technology to clone an individual would not be a great thing for society because it would be costly and it would be unsure as to who should have access to the type of technology that is being used to clone organisms. (smore.com)
  • possibility of human
  • Standing in front of the crowd, with television screens on either side imitating his every move, Robl took his audience through the history of cloning, from the first days in the 1980s, when researchers successfully began transplanting cell nuclei into eggs, to the suddenly real possibility of human cloning. (uml.edu)
  • Yet Robl says the ethical dilemma presented by the possibility of human clones isn't even an issue yet. (uml.edu)
  • sperm
  • Yet, how definitive for humans could be evidence derived from rhesus monkeys, a species differing from humans with respect to oocyte size, form of implantation, and perhaps also response to micromanipulation procedures such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)? (zavos.org)
  • For example, if a man could not produce sperm, cloning would allow him to have a child who is "biologically related" to him. (georgetown.edu)
  • extinct
  • Animals are cloned for many reasons, such as to revive an endangered or extinct species, cloning livestock for food, reproducing a deceased pet, etc. (smore.com)