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  • 2002
  • In 2002, a technique called handmade cloning was introduced, which is cheaper and simpler, without the need for micromanipulation and also works better. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS , "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikiyy.com)
  • differentiation
  • One challenge in their usage for such therapies is understanding the mechanisms that allow the maintenance of pluripotency and controlling the specific differentiation into required functional target cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • therefore, it is proposed that after directed cell differentiation, the cells could be transplanted without immune rejection to treat degenerative disorders such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease (among others). (sciencemag.org)
  • Third, the directed differentiation of those patient-specific pluripotent cells into the cell type relevant to their disease. (stembook.org)
  • The main goal of HESC research is to identify the mechanisms that govern cell differentiation and to turn HESCs into specific cell types that can be used for treating debilitating and life-threatening diseases and injuries. (stanford.edu)
  • As we discuss here, technical advances in the propagation and manipulation of human ES cells have improved our understanding of their growth and differentiation, providing the potential to investigate early human development and to develop new clinical therapies. (biologists.org)
  • This second question is particularly important because the answer profoundly affects how we devise strategies to manipulate ES cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • If hES cell differentiation does not closely resemble mouse embryonic development, a more empirical approach will be needed to identify the signaling pathways that control hES cell differentiation, as we discuss later. (biologists.org)
  • In this article, we review aspects of primate embryology that are relevant to ES cell biology, survey the similarities and differences between mouse and primate ES cells, and then discuss recent advances in hES cell technology, and in understanding primate ES cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • ethical
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Thus, the prospect of applying this technique in humans is troubling for scientific and safety reasons in addition to a variety of ethical reasons related to our ideas about the natural ordering of family and successive generations. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The recent news that almost all of the Korean work was fraudulent, however, has cast a pall over stem cell research and given ammunition to those who oppose it on ethical and religious grounds. (dartmouth.edu)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the principal source of the controversy surrounding HESC research lies in competing views about the value of human embryonic life, the scope of ethical issues in HESC research is broader than the question of the ethics of destroying human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. (jci.org)
  • Key areas in this evolving ethical discourse include the derivation and use of other human embryonic stem cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue and the use of all types of stem cells in clinical research. (jci.org)
  • At present, new ethical issues are beginning to emerge around the derivation and use of other hES cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue. (jci.org)
  • In the near future, as the stem cell field progresses closer to the clinic, additional ethical issues are likely to arise concerning the clinical translation of basic stem cell knowledge into reasonably safe, effective, and accessible patient therapies. (jci.org)
  • From that point forward, hES cell research has been steeped in ethical controversy. (jci.org)
  • Against this background dystopian view of science, a pro-life ideology rapidly emerged as a main driving force behind stem cell ethical debate and policy. (jci.org)
  • These ethical objections cannot be over-ridden by the claim that the embryo is entitled to a "special respect" but that this respect can be violated if there is sufficient benefit for others. (blogspot.com)
  • Nor can the ethical issues be side-stepped by calling the blastocyst a "pre-embryo. (blogspot.com)
  • and the characteristics of the cells, their potential use in regenerative medicine, and the ethical issues surrounding their provenance, have been widely discussed in the scientific literature. (biologists.org)
  • fertilization
  • In vitro fertilization typically produces more embryos than required. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The Pope did not specifically condemn the use of embryos created initially to help women become pregnant -- in vitro fertilization -- if those embryos were no longer needed and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • On 10 March 1988, China's first baby conceived through human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), commonly referred to as a test-tube baby, was born at the Peking Hospital (PUTH) in Beijing. (asu.edu)
  • The biomedical accomplishment of human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) took years to become the successful technique that presently enables infertile couples to have their own children. (asu.edu)
  • Robert Geoffrey Edwards, a British developmental biologist at University of Cambridge, began exploring human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a way to treat infertility in 1960. (asu.edu)
  • The standard view of those who oppose HESC research is that a human being begins to exist with the emergence of the one-cell zygote at fertilization. (stanford.edu)
  • Dolly
  • The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg that produced Dolly was an extension of experiments that had been ongoing for over 40 years. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Recently it was reported that Dolly has arthritis, although it is not yet clear whether the five-and-a-half-year-old sheep is suffering from the condition as a result of the cloning process. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The first cloned animal Dolly the sheep was created in 1996 using expensive and time-consuming cell surgery with a micromanipulator. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • therapies
  • and clashes over embryo donation and equal access to infertility and stem cell therapies. (scribd.com)
  • If we could unlock the secrets of this kind of cellular immortality and reverse cell death, said West, we might be able to apply that to developing new approaches to medical therapies. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The production of cellular therapies requires the optimization of four steps: first, isolating and culturing cells that can be readily obtained from a patient in a non-invasive fashion. (stembook.org)
  • ScienceDaily (Dec. 3, 2007) - A noninvasive, polarized light microscope invented at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) played a crucial role in a recent breakthrough in embryonic stem-cell research aimed at developing medical therapies. (blogspot.com)
  • oocytes
  • He measured the conditions and timings for in vitro (out of the body) maturation of oocytes from diverse mammals including mice, rats, hamsters, pigs, cows, sheep, and rhesus monkeys, as well as humans. (asu.edu)
  • In 1969, more than ten years after the first attempts to treat infertilities with IVF technologies, the British developmental biologist Robert Geoffrey Edwards fertilized human oocytes in a Petri dish for the first time. (asu.edu)
  • Human subjects protection for donors of somatic cells and oocytes and for some donors of embryos. (nap.edu)
  • Here, we identified premature exit from meiosis in human oocytes and suboptimal activation as key factors that are responsible for these outcomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • When applied to premium quality human oocytes, NT-ESC lines were derived from as few as two oocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cytoplasmic factors present in mature, metaphase II (MII)-arrested oocytes have a unique ability to reset the identity of transplanted somatic cell nuclei to the embryonic state. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, we reasoned that, similar to other mammals, human MII oocytes must contain reprogramming activity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Research
  • The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man. (bioethics.net)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • As a consequence, several countries have prohibited human cloning but are racing forward with stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Two years ago, the Australian government decided to allow human embryos existing in fertility clinics to be used in stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those issues are examined in some detail in the recently issued report of the President's Council on Bioethics, "Monitoring Stem Cell Research," available at www.bioethics.gov. (washingtontimes.com)
  • At the moment, the government would allow stem-cell research using embryos that are less than 14 days old and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Mr. Rock's draft appeared only after the government received polling data showing that most Canadians would allow the use of donated embryos for stem-cell research. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The poll suggested that 86 per cent of Canadians would allow use of embryos in research with proper government regulation. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The federal government does not provide funding for scientific research involving stem cells, but has received patent applications from biotech firms planning to clone embryos for research purposes. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • want to halt stem-cell research that uses fertilized human eggs. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • In a direct appeal to George W. Bush at the papal summer retreat on July 23rd, the Pope told the visiting U.S. President that the creation of human embryos for research purposes is morally wrong. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • But a Vatican spokesman said later that the Pope opposes any stem-cell research using embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Recent scientific achievements in cell and developmental biology have provided unprecedented opportunities for advances in biomedical research. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • F ive years ago, Michael West, the president of a small, privately funded biotech company called Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), asked me to help form an ethics advisory board to provide oversight for the company's planned research on human embryonic stem cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Stimulated by this research, state legislatures around the U.S. began considering funding stem cell research to fill the gap left by federal abandonment. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Much of the hope invested in embryonic stem (ES) cell research surrounds its promise to provide a broad spectrum of medical applications. (stembook.org)
  • Led by gynecologist Zhang Lizhu, the PUTH research team had devoted more than four years to the human IVF-ET project. (asu.edu)
  • In 1913 Franklin P. Mall, Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins Medical School, applied for a Carnegie grant to support his research with human embryos. (asu.edu)
  • And if, as with Weissman et al, human cloning is not cloning if it is for " research " purposes, then the Dickey Amendment could even be construed to allow human cloning for "research" purposes . (lifeissues.net)
  • NOTE: What we are clearly beginning to see emerge here is the massive contradictions accruing among several major federal research documents interwoven as "authorities" over the years, using erroneous (or no) scientific definitions for "political" purposes now concretized as stare decisis , ultimately rendering them unconstitutional due to vagueness, and impotent in protecting the lives of both sexually and asexually reproduced human beings in research and in reproduction. (lifeissues.net)
  • Under HHS [OHRP federal] regulations at 45 CFR Part 46, human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information . (lifeissues.net)
  • 1. The definition of " human subject research " is the focus of these Guidances, and references are given to both the current OHRP federal regulations (45 CFR 46) and to Public Law 103-43 (the NIH Revitalization Act). (lifeissues.net)
  • The first human embryonic stem (hES) cell bank was officially opened in the UK in May 2004 , with Health Minister Lord Warner saying, "This potentially revolutionary research could benefit thousands of patients. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The centre contains just two stem cell lines developed by research teams at King s College London and the Centre for Life in Newcastle. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • There is simply no case for supporting research in hES cells any longer. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • Opponents of HESC research argue that the research is morally impermissible because it involves the unjust killing of innocent human beings. (stanford.edu)
  • However, at present, the consensus in the scientific community is that both HESC and iPSC research should be pursued, as we do not yet know whether iPSCs have the same potential as HESCs or whether it is safe to transplant them into humans. (stanford.edu)
  • If looked at from a strictly consequentialist perspective, it's almost certainly the case that the potential health benefits from the research outweigh the loss of embryos involved and whatever suffering results from that loss for persons who want to protect embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, most of those who oppose the research argue that the constraints against killing innocent persons to promote social utility apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, as long as we accept non-consequentialist constraints on killing persons, those supporting HESC research must respond to the claim that those constraints apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • The main bioethical issues associated with human stem cells involve their derivation and use for research. (jci.org)
  • This Review summarizes these and other bioethical issues of the past, present, and future of stem cell research. (jci.org)
  • While public concerns such as these about science and its implications are not in themselves new, hES cell research offered the opportunity for all of these inchoate worries to coalesce around a single, new scientific field. (jci.org)
  • Those who oppose embryonic stem cell research believe for religious or other personal reasons that all preimplantation embryos have a moral standing equal to all living persons, regardless of whether they are located in a fertility clinic dish or in a woman's body. (jci.org)
  • In this view, destroying preimplantation embryos during the course of research is akin to murder and therefore never acceptable, no matter how noble the aims of the research may be. (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, supporters of embryonic stem cell research have pointed out that not all religious traditions grant full moral standing to early-stage human embryos. (jci.org)
  • It would be a mistake to assume that the restrictions on federal funding for human embryonic stem (hES) cell research result in an absence of oversight of such work. (nap.edu)
  • Animal care committee reviews of hES cell research that uses nonhuman animals. (nap.edu)
  • This chapter reviews current state and federal regulation of hES cell research in the United States, noting where gaps in regulatory coverage are addressed by the guidelines proposed later in this report ( Chapter 6 ). (nap.edu)
  • and presents comparisons with regulations in other nations that have substantial hES cell research programs. (nap.edu)
  • Recommendations about the application of existing regulatory conventions to hES cell research are offered. (nap.edu)
  • In the context of privately funded research it is particularly difficult to explore mechanisms by which discoveries made using hES cells can be made widely accessible for the benefit of human health. (nap.edu)
  • Several policy statements developed regarding patenting and licensing issues more generally applied in biomedical science can serve as aspirational goals for the hES cell research community. (nap.edu)
  • California's biomedical industry has already begun its lobbying campaign against legislation to guarantee the state shares in the potential bounty from products developed from its $3 billion stem cell research effort. (blogspot.com)
  • Harvard alumnus James L. Sherley, M.D., Ph.D., a professor in the Biological Engineering department at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has "come out" with his opposition to cloning and destructive embryonic stem cell research. (lifeethics.org)
  • This promise was the earliest misleading misinformation from proponents of human embryo research. (lifeethics.org)
  • Bush's new appointed head of the President's Council on Bioethics, on the morality of research carried out on embryos -- from testimony before congress in 1999. (blogspot.com)
  • The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops has a very thoroughly researched article up discussing "research cloning" and current state legislation regarding cloning. (blogspot.com)
  • Until recently, groups promoting research cloning, such as the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), supported state and federal bills that prohibit implanting a cloned embryo in a womb. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, in Congress they supported the "Human Cloning Ban and Stem Cell Research Protection Act" of 2003 (S. 303). (blogspot.com)
  • People see the name Christopher Reeve and assume that it is about embryonic stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • Induction-Dependent and Lineage-Dependent Models for Cell-Diversification Are Mutually Exclusive," Progress in Clinical Biological Research 175, (1985): 3-11. (lifeissues.net)
  • The NHMRC Embryo Research Licensing Committee (NHMRC Licensing Committee) developed this discussion paper in response to a request from the Council of the NHMRC for a definition of 'human embryo' from a purely biological standpoint. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • The definition proposed in this paper was subsequently adopted by the Australian Parliament in the Prohibition of Human Cloning for Reproduction and Regulation of Human Embryo Research Amendment Act 2006 to replace the previously used definition. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Nevertheless, it remains clear that clever and innovative efforts to generate pluripotent stem cells through research cloning as well as through alternative methods continue unabated. (yale.edu)
  • In this Article, I discuss the recent development of "alternative" methodsthat is, techniques that do not involve research cloning-to derive pluripotent stem cells, most prominently among them, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (yale.edu)
  • bioethics
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • Mr. Bush will create a new President's Council on Bioethics to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behavioural science and technology. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • It's about stem cells, cloning, bioethics and genetics. (blogspot.com)
  • A number of studies have successfully demonstrated the viability of theoretical proposals previously offered by President Bush's Council on Bioethics to generate alternative sources of pluripotent cells, at least in the experimental setting. (yale.edu)
  • moral
  • Living in a pluralistic society such as ours, supporters argue, means having to tolerate differences in religious and personal convictions over such personally theoretical matters as when during the course of human biological development moral personhood first appears. (jci.org)
  • Respect is inherent in the moral status of what the human embryo is in fact. (blogspot.com)
  • There is no arbitrary point at which we can logically confer or withdraw the moral claim of the embryo for protection of its life. (blogspot.com)
  • Thus
  • Thus, Aristotle could fit his observations of embryos perfectly well within his larger theoretical interpretations of the world. (stanford.edu)
  • Moreover, we show that, in contrast to the human enzymes, mouse caspase-7 is as efficient as caspase-3 at cleaving and thus inactivating ICAD (inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase), the inhibitor of apoptotic DNA fragmentation. (jneurosci.org)
  • ethically
  • Participating in this way in a commercial enterprise ensures that advances in cell biology and genomics are applied ethically. (dartmouth.edu)
  • stages
  • Many cloned animals die in utero, even at late stages or soon after birth, and those that survive frequently exhibit severe birth defects. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • We now have an experimental system that provides us with routine access to stages of the human life cycle that were previously out of reach to experimentation. (biologists.org)
  • How useful a tool will these cells be for studying these developmental stages? (biologists.org)
  • nucleus
  • The most critical factor is epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus from its differentiated status into the totipotent state of the early embryo. (bioscientifica.com)
  • The following article reviews the present knowledge on the epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus, with emphasis on DNA methylation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and telomere length restoration in bovine development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The manipulator is used to remove the nucleus from an egg which is then fused with a cell from a donor animal. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • true clones
  • The regulatory regimes of USA and EU based their false claim that the cloned animals are true clones on the baseless assumption that the mitochondrial genomes do not count when in fact the mitochondria play crucial roles in in a number of diseases of the nervous system, in cell suicide and in aging. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The speedy technique could be performed in a clean home kitchen and it has begun to dominate the production of animal 'clones' that are not true clones, but heteroplasmic for mitochondrial DNA as explained above . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The experiment could easily have rendered zero true clones. (blogspot.com)