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  • embryos
  • When these stem cells were tested, researchers found that the cells were able to develop into other types of cells in a manner similar to that seen in stem cells derived directly from embryos. (www.nhs.uk)
  • After two weeks of culture CMR-I myoblast clones were collected, aggregated, and transplanted into the prospective dorsal thigh region of young quail embryos. (biologists.org)
  • While being charged with fraud and embezzlement, he has kept a relatively low profile at the Sooam Bioengineering Research Institute in Yongin, Gyeonggi Province, where he currently leads research efforts on creating cloned pig embryos and using them to make embryonic stem-cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic cell
  • A technique appropriate to investigation of the developmental fates of distinct embryonic cell types is described and the fate of a particular type of chick myoblast (CMR-I) examined. (biologists.org)
  • antibodies
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • However, this view of cancer onset has been challenged in recent years and many tumors have been argued to have polyclonal origin, i.e. derived from two or more cells or clones, including malignant mesothelioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research targeted isolated mammalian cells in vitro and finding ways to trigger malignant transformations and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with Dr. Virginia Evans and a group of tissue-culture workers she became the first to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to her discovery, tissue cultures had to be composed of multiple and various human body cells in order for them to survive and grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell res
  • Media coverage of this study was as varied as people's feelings are about stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Korea Times reported on June 10, 2007, that Seoul National University fired him, and the South Korean government canceled his financial support and barred him from engaging in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2011, Hwang visited Libya as part of a $133 million project in the North African country to build a stem cell research center and transfer relevant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • The technique could potentially be used to take skin cells from a patient to create "personalised" stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Each of these treatments captures a patient's own tumor-fighting cells, grows them to high numbers in the lab, and infuses them back into the patient. (webmd.com)
  • Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant - creating a patient-specific treatment - though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells. (wunc.org)
  • experiments
  • Importance: Gurdon's experiments challenged the dogma of the time which suggested that the nucleus of a differentiated cell is committed to their fate (Example: a liver cell nucleus remains a liver cell nucleus and cannot return to an undifferentiated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after that his human cloning experiments were revealed to be fraudulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • His alleged success was touted as the fifth instance in the world in cow cloning, with a notable caveat: Hwang failed to provide scientifically verifiable data for the research, giving only media sessions and photo-ops. (wikipedia.org)
  • During that period, Hwang claimed to have created a BSE-resistant cow (which has not been verified) and also stated his intention to clone a Siberian tiger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang explained that his team used 242 eggs to create a single cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Most of the clones respond to islet-cell antigen from different mouse strains but only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells bearing the class II major histocompatibility complex of the NOD mouse. (pnas.org)
  • In the 1940s she became the first person to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro, which allowed for more efficient means of creating pure strains of cells for study. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • SCNT involves taking donated egg cells from women and removing their genetic material. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • It did not take her long to make an impact, as almost immediately after joining she made her largest discovery involving a method of cloning mammalian cancer cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, HEK 293 cells should not be used as an in vitro model of typical kidney cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • Chemists have engineered a plastic artificial cell containing organelles capable of producing the various steps in a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • Graham and coworkers provided evidence that HEK 293 cells and other human cell lines generated by adenovirus transformation of human embryonic kidney cells have many properties of immature neurons, suggesting that the adenovirus preferentially transformed a neuronal lineage cell in the original kidney culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal. (wunc.org)
  • experimental
  • March 5, 2012 -- One of 11 patients facing death from treatment-resistant, late-stage melanoma is cancer free 3.5 years after experimental treatment with clones of his own immune cells. (webmd.com)
  • Her experimental procedure required 929 iterations to find a combination of environmental and cell conditions that induced cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • SCNT has been used to clone animals before, and is thought to have potential applications in the study and treatment of human diseases. (www.nhs.uk)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • newly
  • True copy means all the attributes of the newly created Object should be the same as the Object you are cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • instance
  • For instance, two plasma cells belonging to the same clone could be derived from different memory cells (in turn with shared clonality) and could be residing in quite distant locations, such as the cervical (in the neck) and inguinal (in the groin) lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is the first instance of cloning of a vertebrate animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is used when the type of objects to create is determined by a prototypical instance, which is cloned to produce new objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Korea
  • Lanza's colleagues, including Young Gie Chung at the CHA Stem Cell Institute in Seoul, Korea (with labs in Los Angeles as well), now report success. (wunc.org)
  • single
  • When the cell implementation is backed by a single byte[] (Like KeyValue) this can be done in single step copy. (apache.org)
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanford developed micropipettes where single cells could be picked up and isolated from under the microscope and placed in a detailed microenvironment, where diffusion of cellular products was restricted to inside a small closed culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • To implement the pattern, declare an abstract base class that specifies a pure virtual clone() method. (wikipedia.org)
  • The client, instead of writing code that invokes the "new" operator on a hard-coded class name, calls the clone() method on the prototype, calls a factory method with a parameter designating the particular concrete derived class desired, or invokes the clone() method through some mechanism provided by another design pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, during course of cell division, one of the cells can get mutated further and acquire new characteristics to diverge as a new clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the original adenovirus transformation was inefficient, suggesting that the cell that finally produced the HEK 293 line may have been unusual in some fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • Furthermore, pancreatic sections from a disease transfer experiment with one of the clones showed a pronounced cellular infiltration and degranulation of islets in nondiabetic (CBA x NOD)F1 recipients. (pnas.org)
  • survive
  • Butler says that Yee's team showed that anti-tumor immune cells can survive when patients are given much less toxic chemotherapy and lower doses of the immune-boosting drugs. (webmd.com)
  • genes
  • He'd like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes. (wunc.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • next
  • Hwang's next claim came only two months later in April 1999, when he announced the cloning of a Korean cow, Jin-i, also without providing any scientifically verifiable data. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until Hwang's claim, it was generally agreed that creating a human stem cell by cloning was next to impossible due to the complexity of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the location of the adrenal gland (adrenal means "next to the kidney"), a few adrenal cells could plausibly have appeared in an embryonic kidney derived culture, and could be preferentially transformed by adenovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • Tong Dizhou (童第周) (May 28, 1902 - March 30, 1979) was a Chinese embryologist remembered for his contributions to the field of cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)