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  • Researchers
  • It should be noted that no babies were born as a result of this research, and the researchers had no intention of producing a live cloned human being. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers have been looking into ways of using a patient's own cells to create embryonic stem cells, as this would ensure that the genetic material in any cells used therapeutically would match the patient's DNA. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers report that previous attempts to produce embryonic stem cells using this technique have failed, as the cells stopped dividing before they reached an advanced enough stage. (www.nhs.uk)
  • During their experiments, researchers identified two reasons for this inability to sufficiently grow the cells and developed techniques to overcome these limiting factors. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This study will no doubt be very exciting for researchers working with stem cells, but we're still a long way from the findings of this study being translated into new treatments for conditions such as Parkinson's disease or heart disease . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers then optimised methods to prompt the egg cell to start and continue to divide using electricity and chemical compounds, including caffeine. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Cloning of Animals On Sunday, February 23, 1997, Scottish researchers broke one of nature's greatest laws by cloning a lamb from a single cell of an adult ewe. (essaypride.com)
  • In the 18 years since researchers cloned a sheep, scientists have found another way to produce cloned human cell lines. (wunc.org)
  • An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. (labspaces.net)
  • Harvard University researchers plan to ask women to donate their eggs for research as they race to grow embryonic stem cells matched to patients // which they say would hopefully find new treatments for many debilitating diseases such as diabates or neurodegenerative disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Because the proteins remain bound to the DNA, the researchers can determine which genes (and other genomic elements) were "off" or "on" in the cell. (cshlpress.com)
  • Researchers in Oregon claim to have solved the tricky problem of cloning human stem cells , but you're more likely to see a duplicate of a years-old ethics debate than you are a duplicate human. (govexec.com)
  • Researchers have tried to test the integrity of these surviving stem cells by transplanting them into fertilized blastocysts and then observing the overall health of the resulting animal. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (medgadget.com)
  • In their studies, the researchers compared the efficiency for cloning mice using a fully differentiated blood cell called a granulocyte with its ancestor cells at different stages: hematopoietic stem cells, which are found in bone marrow and give rise to all red and white blood cells, and progenitor cells. (medgadget.com)
  • genetically
  • Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to another plant or animal. (essaypride.com)
  • The result suggests that, although Hwang deceived the world about achieving the first human cloning, his group was first to succeed in performing human parthenogenesis, which may offer a way of creating cells that are genetically matched to a woman for transplantation back into her body to treat degenerative diseases. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The claim went up in smoke in January of 2006 after a probe by the university concluded that Hwang had fabricated the evidence, which followed a similarly damning assessment of a landmark paper from the previous year in which the group falsely reported creating 11 cell lines genetically matched to their donors. (scientificamerican.com)
  • transplants
  • 91% of the chick clones recovered from transplants were muscle clones, and of these 97% were CMR-I. It was concluded that CMR-I myoblasts do not undergo a change in differentiated state identifiable by clonal analysis. (biologists.org)
  • This issue should also be addressed in future mouse barcoding studies, as the routine practice of using one limb for secondary transplants might exclude clones that preferentially reside in other skeletal sites. (rupress.org)
  • Since LPS is a costimulatory immunogen that can react with both the B-cell receptor (BCR) and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), these results suggest a mechanism for the selective pressure that leads to clonality of these B-cell clusters and opens the possibility that infection and the attendant exposure to LPS plays a role in the chronic rejection of human kidney transplants. (pnas.org)
  • We now report that the antibodies produced by the B-cells within these clusters, as well as those in the serum of patients who were rejecting transplants, react strongly with the core carbohydrate epitopes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (pnas.org)
  • adult
  • This was a laboratory study that aimed to produce embryonic stem cells from adult skin cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The possibility that people might be cloned from the cells of a single adult human being had long been a subject primarily of fantasy and science fiction but became very definite at the end of the 20th century. (essaypride.com)
  • It also means that finally getting the sheep technology to work with cells from adult humans may not turn out to be a turning point for this technology, after all. (wunc.org)
  • As I was heading into Parliament House this morning, I heard some coverage on ABC radio mentioning a briefing that was being held today with a leading researcher into adult stem cells. (andrewbartlett.com)
  • In this cloning process, known as nuclear transfer, a donated ovum with all DNA removed had the woman's adult cells inserted and reprogrammed to produce insulin cells. (empr.com)
  • The focus now is on 'reprogramming' adult cells so they become stem cells again, which has had limited success. (govexec.com)
  • Many have attributed cloning's limited success to a theory that clones must be derived from adult stem cells, which reside in a specific area of each tissue and remain quiescent until they are activated by the presence of disease or tissue injury. (medgadget.com)
  • Yet, if this were true, Drs. Yang and Cheng point out, the results of their studies would have found the adult stem cells to be more efficient than the other, more differentiated cells. (medgadget.com)
  • reside
  • The latter would confirm that the spectral differences between the so-called resistant clonal cells prior to and after adding a drug might reside on those more or less sensitive cells that have been able to remain alive when they were collected to be studied with S-FTIR or Raman microspectroscopies. (rsc.org)
  • chromosomes
  • In 1880, a man named Walter Sutton made one of the most important discoveries towards cloning- he proved that chromosomes hold genetic information. (essaypride.com)
  • But in contrast, pairs of matching chromosomes in parthenogenetic cells tend to match one another in the middle and differ near the ends because of a genetic mixing process called recombination. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In their paper, Daley and colleagues report that the SNPs in the Korean cell line do indeed match toward the center of the chromosomes, similar to five parthenogenetic mouse cell lines that the team created for comparison. (scientificamerican.com)
  • chromosomes 17q and 12 in cultured human embryonic stem cells,' Nature Biotechnology December 7, 2003, advance online publication. (godandscience.org)
  • malignant cells
  • It is typically slow-growing and often not diagnosed until its later stages when there can be a sudden, dramatic increase in malignant cells, known as blast crisis. (labspaces.net)
  • The data presented here indicate that the methodology of cell cloning can be applied to different types of malignant cells. (rsc.org)
  • antigen
  • These clones proliferate and make interleukin 2 in an antigen-specific manner in response to NOD antigen-presenting cells and islet cells. (pnas.org)
  • Most of the clones respond to islet-cell antigen from different mouse strains but only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells bearing the class II major histocompatibility complex of the NOD mouse. (pnas.org)
  • In the case of transplanted human kidneys, a search for the antigen(s) that drives the replication of the B-cells that have infiltrated the allograft should be simpler because one knows the perturbations that initiated the process. (pnas.org)
  • donors
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • patient
  • The technique could potentially be used to take skin cells from a patient to create "personalised" stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Each of these treatments captures a patient's own tumor-fighting cells, grows them to high numbers in the lab, and infuses them back into the patient. (webmd.com)
  • Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant - creating a patient-specific treatment - though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells. (wunc.org)
  • The next step would be a better assessment of sensitivity/resistance of leukaemia cells from patients which could guide clinicians to better tailor treatments to each individual patient. (rsc.org)
  • Undifferentiated stem cells could produce tumors and multiply unchecked within a patient, causing more problems than providing appropriate therapy. (godandscience.org)
  • gene expression
  • I am presently looking at cytokine mediated differential gene expression in T cells. (bio.net)
  • Tobias Brambrink, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab, tried a different approach, comparing gene expression in cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • embryonic cell
  • A technique appropriate to investigation of the developmental fates of distinct embryonic cell types is described and the fate of a particular type of chick myoblast (CMR-I) examined. (biologists.org)
  • sperm
  • When a chromosome from a sperm cell joins with that of an egg, these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or "snips") tend not to match each other. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Robert Lanza
  • Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology , says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes. (wunc.org)
  • I think this is an extremely important-and solid-paper," says stem cell researcher Robert Lanza, vice president of research and scientific development at Applied Cell Technology, a regenerative medicine company headquartered in Alameda, Calif., who did not take part in the study. (scientificamerican.com)
  • diabetic
  • This could lead to diabetic patients being able to produce their own cells that make insulin to replace their non-functioning cells. (empr.com)
  • epithelial
  • The selected clones maintained an epithelial phenotype, showing typical epithelial morphology, forming "domes" at high density, and expressing E-cadherin. (nih.gov)
  • Protocols
  • COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Fri., June 1, 2007) - Cloning, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cells, and embryogenesis are hot areas of research at the moment, and protocols featured in this month's release of Cold Spring Harbor Protocols ( cshprotocols.cshlp.org ) will aid these studies. (cshlpress.com)
  • resistance
  • People normally think about DNA instability in cancer, but in this case, it's how the RNA is edited by enzymes that really matters in terms of cancer stem cell generation and resistance to conventional therapy. (labspaces.net)
  • Despite tremendous advances in BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapies, the majority of patients relapse if therapy is discontinued, in part as a result of dormant cancer stem cell resistance. (labspaces.net)
  • This work suggests a novel mechanism for overcoming cancer stem cell resistance to therapy that may prevent relapse and progression. (labspaces.net)
  • However, cancer is a mixture of cells with different sensitivity/resistance to drugs. (rsc.org)
  • Compared with the wild-type cells, the isolated clones showed a general resistance to apoptosis: 13 were extremely resistant to azide-induced apoptosis, 10 to staurosporine, and 9 to cisplatin. (nih.gov)
  • The cell clones that most consistently demonstrated resistance or sensitivity to injury were further studied for their response to azide treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was upregulated in several clones, but the upregulation did not correlate with cell death resistance. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that apoptotic resistance of the selected clones is not determined by a single factor or molecule but, rather, by various alterations at the core apoptotic pathway. (nih.gov)
  • produce
  • Furthermore, the effects of drugs on cells produce both chemical and morphological changes, the latter could affect the spectra of cells incubated with drugs. (rsc.org)
  • reveals
  • Analysis of the lipids from differentiating and nondifferentiating clones reveals the presence of sebaceous-type lipids in differentiating clones only. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients' recovery following treatment. (the-scientist.com)
  • tissue
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • These tissue slices, called "Keller explants," contain cells that undergo dynamic movements and interactions during embryogenesis. (cshlpress.com)
  • In other words, the egg needs to erase all tissue-specific memories from the skin cell and revert it into a genomic blank slate. (eurekalert.org)
  • Much more likely is that these animals were derived from fully differentiated tissue cells," Dr. Yang argues. (medgadget.com)
  • researcher
  • Later, during a chance discussion with European colleagues, stem cell researcher George Daley of Children's Hospital Boston and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute learned that they had received samples of the cell line before the work was retracted. (scientificamerican.com)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • Despite the emergence of new therapies, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, CML and other leukemias remain problematic because some cancer stem cells avoid destruction and eventually regenerate themselves, a stem cell process known as self-renewal that can result in a return and spread (metastasis) of the disease. (labspaces.net)