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  • vitro
  • These T cell clones proliferated in vitro in response to B. gingivalis, but not to other bacteria (Prevotella intermedia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Wolinella recta, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus sanguis). (nii.ac.jp)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said method is carried out in vitro, and said stimulation is determined by an assay selected from the group consisting of (i) T cell proliferation, (ii) interleukin-2 secretion, (iii) interferon-gamma secretion, (iv) granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor secretion and (v) cytotoxicity. (google.com)
  • In the 1940s she became the first person to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro, which allowed for more efficient means of creating pure strains of cells for study. (wikipedia.org)
  • It did not take her long to make an impact, as almost immediately after joining she made her largest discovery involving a method of cloning mammalian cancer cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with Dr. Virginia Evans and a group of tissue-culture workers she became the first to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research targeted isolated mammalian cells in vitro and finding ways to trigger malignant transformations and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells are activated in a process called "in vitro immunization", which allows for selection and expansion of T-cells of varying specificity and has been validated in patients with advanced melanoma skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this model, eradication of a human melanoma tumor by in vitro generating CTL clone was accomplished. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study run at the University de la Sante, the adoptive transfer of cloned T cells in "in vitro immunization" caused increased frequencies of cancer fighting T cells in 18 out of 35 melanoma patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said method is carried out in vivo, said antigent-presenting cells are provided endogenously and said aqueous culture medium is endogenous blood or lymph. (google.com)
  • We found extensive TCR clonotype sharing in Ag-activated cells, especially from individual T1D subjects, consistent with in vivo T cell expansion during disease progression. (jimmunol.org)
  • CLL cells proliferate and die in vivo at rates higher than originally appreciated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chiorazzi N, Ferrarini M. (2006) Evolving view of the in-vivo kinetics of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method of activation may be used for the preparation of anti-tumor vaccines or for ex vivo activation of the cytotoxic T-cells which can then be followed by the expansion of T-cells through normal, mature dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • We have produced a panel of islet-specific T-cell clones from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. (pnas.org)
  • To evaluate the usefulness of NR2G mice as a host for humanized mice, the engraftment rates and differentiation of human cells after human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation were compared among NR2G, NOG, and NOD-scid mice. (jove.com)
  • Next, 5 × 10(4) human umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells were intravenously inoculated into irradiated adult or newborn of the immunodeficient mice. (jove.com)
  • However, no difference was found in the human cell populations differentiated from HSCs between NR2G and NOG mice. (jove.com)
  • The human immune system can be reconstituted in experimental animals by transplanting human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) into immunodeficient mice. (jove.com)
  • To generate such humanized mice, further improvements are required, particularly to ensure that transplanted hHSCs are maintained in mice and proliferate long enough to follow prolonged immune responses to chronic diseases or monitor therapeutic effects. (jove.com)
  • T helper 1 (TH1) cells, when injected with overexpressed tumor antigens, have been shown to enhance migration of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) into the draining lymph node in mice, further enhancing immune response through activation of CTLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • BIOLOGY
  • Additionally, she was a member of the American Society for Cell Biology, the American Society of Human Genetics, the Tissue Culture Association, and the International Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Chiorazzi is currently Professor of Medicine and of Cell Biology in the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Head of the Karches Center for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Research at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research carried out at the Department of Tumour Cell Biology in Copenhagen has shown that CTL clones targeting specific melanoma tumor associated antigens (gp100 and MART-1) can successfully proliferate if melanoma cell lines are carefully preselected. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • islet
  • Thus, we provide evidence of molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and an islet autoantigen and a novel mechanism by which the diabetogenicity of CD8 + T cells can be regulated by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (rupress.org)
  • However, there is a substantial gap in our knowledge of how islet autoimmunity mediated by CD8 + T cells is shaped by innate immunity and the gut microbiota. (rupress.org)
  • Most of the clones respond to islet-cell antigen from different mouse strains but only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells bearing the class II major histocompatibility complex of the NOD mouse. (pnas.org)
  • The significance of islet Ag-reactive T cells found in peripheral blood of type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects is unclear, partly because similar cells are also found in healthy control (HC) subjects. (jimmunol.org)
  • We applied these procedures to analysis of islet Ag-reactive CD4 + memory T cells from the blood of T1D and HC individuals after activation with pooled immunodominant islet peptides. (jimmunol.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that islet Ag-reactive CD4 + memory T cells with unique Ag specificities and phenotypes are expanded during disease progression and can be detected by single-cell analysis of peripheral blood. (jimmunol.org)
  • Accumulating evidence for a role of islet Ag-reactive CD4 + T cells in development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has spurred efforts to use them to investigate disease mechanisms and as therapeutic targets and biomarkers for β cell destruction ( 1 - 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although levels of islet Ag-reactive cells may be increased in the pancreas ( 2 , 3 ), biopsy of this organ is not tenable in humans. (jimmunol.org)
  • Numerous studies have reported detection of islet Ag-reactive CD4 + T cells in blood of at-risk and T1D subjects, but these cells are often detected in healthy control (HC) subjects as well ( 7 - 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • receptor
  • The vaccine is composed of a pharmaceutically acceptable medium and a segment of the T cell receptor (TCR) present on the surface of the T cells mediating. (google.com)
  • 2. The composition of claim 1, wherein said peptide has an amino acid sequence derived from a variable region sequence of a T cell receptor polypeptide chain. (google.com)
  • 3. The composition of claim 1, wherein said peptide has an amino acid sequence derived from the V(D)J junction of a T cell receptor polypeptide chain. (google.com)
  • 4. The composition of claim 1, comprising more than one substantially pure, immunogenic single chain peptide derived from the non-constant regions of different T cell receptor polypeptide chains. (google.com)
  • 5. A method of reducing the severity of a T cell proliferative disease mediated by unregulated T cell clonal replication of T cells having restricted T cell receptor heterogeneity in a mammal, comprising administering the composition of claim 1. (google.com)
  • Receptor occupation is required for cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • Therefore, as an infection proceeds, memory B cells selected in the later stages of a germinal center response are found to have accumulated the highest numbers of immunoglobulin mutation events with superior affinity towards their targeted antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • For this purpose, the appropriate irradiation doses to expand the niche for human stem cells in the bone marrow were first determined. (jove.com)
  • It is characterised as a pre-malignant disease that lacks symptoms but is associated with bone marrow biopsy showing the presence of an abnormal number of clonal myeloma cells, blood and/or urine containing a myeloma protein, and a significant risk of developing into a malignant disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 60% plasma cells in bone marrow OR Involved/Uninvolved light chain ratio>100) Smouldering myeloma with an increasingly abnormal serum free light chain (FLC) ratio is associated with a higher risk for progression to active multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • IGRP
  • Both the microbial peptide mimic of Fusobacteria and the bacteria directly activate IGRP-specific NY8.3 T cells and promote diabetes development. (rupress.org)
  • Expanded clones from two T1D subjects recognized distinct IGRP peptides, implicating this molecule as a trigger for CD4 + T cell expansion. (jimmunol.org)
  • antibodies
  • According to it, certain cells exhibit on their surface different "side chains" (i.e. membrane-bound antibodies) able to react with different antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, an important limitation of antibodies is that cells need to be fixed leading to potential artifacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these clones differentiate into the plasma cells, also called effector B cells which produce a first wave of protective antibodies and help clear the infection, but a fraction persist as dormant memory cells that survive in the body on a long-term basis after having gone through a highly mutative and selective germinal center reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Sanford developed micropipettes where single cells could be picked up and isolated from under the microscope and placed in a detailed microenvironment, where diffusion of cellular products was restricted to inside a small closed culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not readily grow in standard media. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursors
  • Blood samples containing the required precursors for CD4+ helper T-cell, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell, and natural killer (NK) cell are extracted from the patient and activated before being re-administered to the patient to induce anti-tumor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • generate
  • With each such subsequent exposure to the same antigen, the number of different responding B cell clones increases to generate a polyclonal response and effectively a greater number of memory B cells persist. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary
  • Further and more rapid evolution causes the overtly malignant stage of multiple myeloma and can subsequently lead to the extremely malignant stage of secondary plasma cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenesis
  • Thus, altered gut microbiota are associated with β cell autoimmunity in humans at risk of developing T1D, underscoring a role for gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of antiislet cell autoimmunity and T1D development. (rupress.org)
  • mutations
  • Messmer BT, Albesiano E, Messmer D, Chiorazzi N. (2003) The pattern and distribution of immunoglobulin VH gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells are consistent with the canonical somatic hypermutation process" Blood 103: 3490-3495. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is called somatic hypermutation and is responsible for introducing spontaneous mutations with a frequency of about 1 in every 1600 cell division (a relatively high frequency considering the low mutation frequency of other cells of the body being 1 in 106 cell divisions). (wikipedia.org)
  • Then after gaining a set number of mutations, germinal center B cells are subjected to a round of selection by TFH cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, some patients with smouldering myeloma progress to multiple myeloma and plasma cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • The present invention provides vaccines and a means vaccinating a host so as to prevent or control specific T cell medicated proliferative diseases. (google.com)
  • Smouldering myeloma, also known as smoldering myeloma, smoldering multiple myeloma, indolent myeloma or asymptomatic myeloma, is a disease classified as intermediate in a spectrum of step-wise progressive diseases termed plasma cell dyscrasias. (wikipedia.org)
  • method
  • Two weeks later, the T cells from the spleen were cloned by a limiting dilution method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the ALECSAT method, several different cells are activated to accomplish this. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter method is utilized for ALECSAT to treat cancer by adoptive T-cell immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures
  • Prior to her discovery, tissue cultures had to be composed of multiple and various human body cells in order for them to survive and grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • Damle RN, Temburni S, Calissano C, Yancopoulos S, Banapour T, Sison C, Allen SL, Rai KR, Chiorazzi N. (2007) CD38 expression labels an activated subset within chronic lymphocytic leukemia clones enriched in proliferating B cells" Blood 110: 3352-3359. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • The vaccine is administered to the host in a manner that induces an immune response directed against the TCR of a pathologic T cell. (google.com)
  • When a substance, termed an antigen, enters the body, and is recognized as foreign, the immune system mounts both an antibody- mediated response and a cell-mediated response. (google.com)
  • Clonal selection theory is a scientific theory in immunology that explains the functions of cells (lymphocytes) of the immune system in response to specific antigens invading the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • One clone acts immediately to combat infection whilst the other is longer lasting, remaining in the immune system for a long time, which results in immunity to that antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the fact that all the accumulation of cells of a single clone population express many of the one same type of antibody and that these memory B cells survive for long periods of time in a body underscores their functional significance during vaccination and the administration of booster shots. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • To date, eight B. gingivalis-specific T cell clones have been isolated. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Each type of pattern is a specific product of a clone of lymphocytes and it is the essence of the hypothesis that each cell automatically has available on its surface representative reactive sites equivalent to those of the globulin they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • We also demonstrated that B. gingivalis-reactive W3/25+ T cells belong to the OX22- T cell population, suggesting that OX22- T cells could be 'memory' cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Treatment for multiple myeloma is focused on therapies that decrease the clonal plasma cell population and consequently decrease the signs and symptoms of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • Based on these data, the clones in this study can hardly be classified as Thl or Th2. (nii.ac.jp)
  • injection
  • Lastly, after seven days of culture, the cells are prepared for injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of alternative techniques are available, such as chemical sensitivation of cells, electroporation, optical injection and biolistics. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are activated to target the cells that present proteins characteristic of tumor cells Some tumor cells, however, do not present an antigen due to lack of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and therefore cannot be recognized by the CTLs. (wikipedia.org)
  • selection
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, these selection steps do not absolutely guarantee that the DNA insert is present in the cells obtained. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Determining the amino acid sequence of non-constant regions of TCRs from said obtained T cell clone. (google.com)
  • Synthesizing or selecting an amino acid sequence of said selected segments or functional equivalents thereof that reduces the severity of said T cell proliferative disease. (google.com)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • respond
  • A limiting- analysis showed W3/25+, OX8- T cells preferentially respond to B. gingivalis rather than W3/25-, OX8+ T cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • disease
  • We hypothesized that key disease-associated cells would show evidence of prior Ag exposure, inferred from expanded TCR clonotypes, and essential phenotypic properties in their transcriptomes. (jimmunol.org)
  • tissues
  • KCa3.1 channels expressed in lymphocytes, fibroblasts, proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelium and, intestinal and airway epithelia are therapeutic targets in inflammatory diseases in these tissues. (creative-biogene.com)
  • The two rigidity-independent cell lines (Computer-3 and mPanc96) grew well in gentle (lung) tissues, while the solidity reliant cell lines (A549 and MDA-MB-231) do not really develop well in the lung. (techtasys.com)
  • infection
  • No significant quantitative differences in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell levels were observed between IDU and non-IDU subjects when accounting for the presence of HIV-1 infection. (omicsonline.org)
  • Studies of acute and early CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infection in man and SIV mac infection in rhesus macaques have demonstrated that CD4 + T cells at mucosal sites, particularly within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, are preferentially targeted and depleted [ 1 - 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • produce
  • The rearrangement and organization of these gene segments during the maturation of B cells produce functional proteins.The entire process of rearrangement and organization of these gene segments is the vital source where our body immune system gets its capabilities to recognize and respond to variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, differentiated plant cells cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • The mature B cell formed as RNA processing changes leaves the bone marrow and is stimulated by the antigen then differentiated into IgM -secreted plasma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • Evaluation of human being malignancy cell lines is definitely generally performed using cells cultured on strict plastic material, or in Matrigel or smooth agar, the mechanised properties of which are badly described and/or hard to modulate. (techtasys.com)
  • central
  • In rhesus macaques rapid progression to simian AIDS has been associated with failure to regenerate critical effector immune cells at the tissue/environment interface, whereas in the remainder of infected animals, a striking proliferative response presumably derived from the naïve and central memory T cell compartment is observed [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • growth
  • There are two types of apical meristem tissue: shoot apical meristem (SAM), which gives rise to organs like the leaves and flowers, and root apical meristem (RAM), which provides the meristematic cells for the future root growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The cell lines examined diverged into two groups centered on their expansion information: solidity reliant lines generally exhibited raising cell development as extracellular solidity improved, while rigidity indie lines grew well across the whole tested range of matrix rigidity equally. (techtasys.com)
  • We driven the development profile of fourteen cancers cell lines by plating the cells on the soft-plate96 and calculating the flip transformation in cell amount after five times using a neon DNA-binding absorb dyes (Fig. 2). (techtasys.com)
  • In addition, the development dating profiles of nontumorigenic mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and two fibroblast lines had been driven. (techtasys.com)
  • The development dating profiles of the cell lines dropped into one of two types: rigidity-dependent cells, at least a 2-fold transformation in cell amount across the range of extracellular solidity examined (y.g. (techtasys.com)
  • That is, the controlled gene expression during transcription and translation coupled with the rearrangements of immunoglobulin gene segments result in the generation of antibody repertoire during development and maturation of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the development of B cells, the immunoglobulin gene undergoes sequences of rearrangements that lead to formation of the antibody repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • environment
  • Even more significantly, seeding the cell lines into the GATA3 lung area of naked rodents uncovered that the capability of cells to develop on gentle skin gels related with their capability to develop in a gentle cells environment and . (techtasys.com)
  • products
  • More recently it has been suggested that there is selective depletion of the Th17 cells from the GI tract- and that the loss of these cells may result in loss of mucosal integrity, translocation of microbial products, immune activation and subsequent CD4 + T cell loss [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)