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  • genes
  • Cloning of genes and cells to create many copies in the laboratory is a common procedure essential for biomedical research. (bio.org)
  • For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reporter genes are used in some cloning vectors to facilitate the screening of successful clones by using features of these genes that allow successful clone to be easily identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such features present in cloning vectors may be the lacZα fragment for α complementation in blue-white selection, and/or marker gene or reporter genes in frame with and flanking the MCS to facilitate the production of fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • A clone is grown using another humans intent , the people or persons making the clone, not the soul using its own intent before reincarnating into this world via the unborn child. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • The Bioethical Focus article entitled "Cloning in Humans" gives us some basic background information on cloning. (essaypride.com)
  • sperm
  • 2) "Clone or attempt to clone a human being" means to implant in a uterus or attempt to implant in a uterus anything other than the product of fertilization of an egg of a human female by a sperm of a human male for the purpose of initiating a pregnancy that could result in the creation of a human fetus, or the birth of a human being. (chipbennett.net)
  • Six hours later, the husband's sperm cells are added. (essaypride.com)
  • nuclei
  • In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques (named Zhong Zhong and Hua Hua) from fetal nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (bio.org)
  • Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) is the process by which the nucleus of an oocyte (egg cell) is removed and is replaced with the nucleus of a somatic (body) cell (examples include skin, heart, or nerve cell). (wikipedia.org)
  • In human SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leading scientists to seek an alternative method of obtaining stem cells, SCNT is one such method. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs for transplant into the specific patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • All cloning vectors have features that allow a gene to be conveniently inserted into the vector or removed from it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene, once cloned into the cloning vector (called entry clone in this method), may be conveniently introduced into a variety of expression vectors by recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another kind of selectable marker allows for the positive selection of plasmid with cloned gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may involve the use of a gene lethal to the host cells, such as barnase, Ccda, and the parD/parE toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This typically works by disrupting or removing the lethal gene during the cloning process, and unsuccessful clones where the lethal gene still remains intact would kill the host cells, therefore only successful clones are selected. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus of a cell
  • Materials used in this procedure are a microscope, a holding pipette (small vacuum) to keep the oocyte in place, and a micropipette (hair-thin needle) capable of extracting the nucleus of a cell using a vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: Two of the most hotly debated and currently controversial topics-in the fields of science, religion, ethics, and politics-are human cloning and stem-cell research. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Posts in this category pertain to abortion, human cloning, embryonic stem cell research, and other issues pertaining to the advancement of the culture of life and to the respect and protection of the sanctity of life. (chipbennett.net)
  • The measure specifically bans human cloning, but would permit all federally allowed stem cell research in the state. (chipbennett.net)
  • Stem cells can be extracted 5-6 days later and used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, gametes are cells that fuse during sexual reproduction, germ cells are cells that give rise to gametes, and stem cells are cells that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • This ability allows stem cells to create any cell type, which could then be transplanted to replace damaged or destroyed cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease specific stem cell lines could then be studied in order to better understand the condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The initiative intentionally re-defines "cloning" in a manner inconsistent with any biological, scientific, or other reasonable understanding or definition of the term. (chipbennett.net)
  • The effects of cloning and most importantly human cloning could change society and the biological world, as we know it. (essaypride.com)
  • procedure
  • Business and medical leaders strongly support the measure while religious and anti-abortion leaders have campaigned against it, saying the procedure amounts to human cloning . (chipbennett.net)
  • human
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • Isolate and purify all the DNA from a sample of human cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • it specifically allows human cloning, and specifically prohibits the state legislature from prohibiting human cloning. (chipbennett.net)
  • This is the problem the Greys have with the hybrids, and this is why the human clones do not have an energy field, because Spirit can't attach to it, and this is also because there was no intent in it's creation (in terms of self-maintaining consciousness). (abovetopsecret.com)
  • BIO supports the FDA scientific risk assessment which concludes that eating foods from animals which have been cloned for better health are safe for human consumption. (bio.org)
  • Cloning Attempts to create a human being by cloning should be banned for several reasons. (essaypride.com)
  • Although cloning has some benefits, attempts to clone a human will bring up many moral and ethical issues. (essaypride.com)
  • The possibility that people might be cloned from the cells of a single adult human being had long been a subject primarily of fantasy and science fiction but became very definite at the end of the 20th century. (essaypride.com)
  • One of the most recent bioethical issues facing society is the idea of human cloning. (essaypride.com)
  • The second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • livestock
  • Cloning can help livestock producers deliver what consumers want: nutritious, wholesome food products provided to them in a repeatable and reliable manner, and at an affordable price. (bio.org)
  • another
  • Another important area where one can talk of "clones" of cells is neoplasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a DNA fragment has been cloned into a cloning vector, it may be further subcloned into another vector designed for more specific use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some vectors also include elements that allow them to be maintained in another organism in addition to E. coli, and these vectors are called shuttle vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction sites may be further used for sub-cloning into another vector if necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another method of cloning without the use of DNA digest and ligase is by DNA recombination, for example as used in the Gateway cloning system. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, they can have diploid or even triploid germline cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the cloning vectors used often have elements necessary for their propagation and maintenance in E. coli, such as a functional origin of replication (ori). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018
  • On 24 January 2018, two monkey clones were reported to have been created with the technique for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • rapidly
  • citation needed] Other cloning vectors may use topoisomerase instead of ligase and cloning may be done more rapidly without the need for restriction digest of the vector or insert. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Although researchers had been working on cloning for more than 20 years this brought it to the forefront of public attention. (bio.org)
  • divide
  • After conception, the zygote (fertilized egg) is allowed to divide and nutrients are added to promote cell division. (essaypride.com)
  • In rare instances, the newly constructed cell will divide normally, replicating the new DNA while remaining in a pluripotent state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing an enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)