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  • growth
  • one involved three rounds of adherence assays to bovine primary rectal epithelial cells while the other competed the clones over three rounds of growth in bovine rectal mucus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viruses derived from the BAC clones were stable during in vitro passage, but showed differences in in vitro growth kinetics compared with the wild-type virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In spite of the difference in in vitro growth, viruses from both clones induced 100 % protection against infection by the virulent MDV strain RB-1B, indicating that the BAC-derived viruses could be used as vaccines with efficacies similar to that of the parental virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genes
  • He'd like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes. (wunc.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic cell
  • A technique appropriate to investigation of the developmental fates of distinct embryonic cell types is described and the fate of a particular type of chick myoblast (CMR-I) examined. (biologists.org)
  • world's
  • Cloning has been all over the papers and the news lately, mostly caused by the death of possibly the world's most famous animal behind Lassie, Ian Wilmut's cloned sheep, Dolly. (essaypride.com)
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • Finally it happens this small idea of science fiction becomes real with the first clone, Dolly the sheep, but now people are thinking that this might not be such a good idea. (essaypride.com)
  • The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal. (wunc.org)
  • antibodies
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • However, this view of cancer onset has been challenged in recent years and many tumors have been argued to have polyclonal origin, i.e. derived from two or more cells or clones, including malignant mesothelioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research targeted isolated mammalian cells in vitro and finding ways to trigger malignant transformations and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplants
  • 91% of the chick clones recovered from transplants were muscle clones, and of these 97% were CMR-I. It was concluded that CMR-I myoblasts do not undergo a change in differentiated state identifiable by clonal analysis. (biologists.org)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • In 1880, a man named Walter Sutton made one of the most important discoveries towards cloning- he proved that chromosomes hold genetic information. (essaypride.com)
  • SCNT involves taking donated egg cells from women and removing their genetic material. (www.nhs.uk)
  • SCNT involved taking the nucleus (the part of a cell containing most of the genetic information) from a person's skin cells, inserting its cells into a donor's unfertilised egg cell that had its nucleus removed. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allowed the advancement of research on metabolic and genetic features of the clone cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem cell res
  • Media coverage of this study was as varied as people's feelings are about stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Korea Times reported on June 10, 2007, that Seoul National University fired him, and the South Korean government canceled his financial support and barred him from engaging in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2011, Hwang visited Libya as part of a $133 million project in the North African country to build a stem cell research center and transfer relevant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • The technique could potentially be used to take skin cells from a patient to create "personalised" stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Each of these treatments captures a patient's own tumor-fighting cells, grows them to high numbers in the lab, and infuses them back into the patient. (webmd.com)
  • Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant - creating a patient-specific treatment - though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells. (wunc.org)
  • experiments
  • Importance: Gurdon's experiments challenged the dogma of the time which suggested that the nucleus of a differentiated cell is committed to their fate (Example: a liver cell nucleus remains a liver cell nucleus and cannot return to an undifferentiated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after that his human cloning experiments were revealed to be fraudulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • His alleged success was touted as the fifth instance in the world in cow cloning, with a notable caveat: Hwang failed to provide scientifically verifiable data for the research, giving only media sessions and photo-ops. (wikipedia.org)
  • During that period, Hwang claimed to have created a BSE-resistant cow (which has not been verified) and also stated his intention to clone a Siberian tiger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang explained that his team used 242 eggs to create a single cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The skin cell nucleus was then fused with the donor egg cell. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Experiment: Gurdon used a technique known as nuclear transfer to replace the killed-off nucleus of a frog (Xenopus) egg with a nucleus from a mature cell (intestinal epithelial). (wikipedia.org)
  • Essay
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Most of the clones respond to islet-cell antigen from different mouse strains but only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells bearing the class II major histocompatibility complex of the NOD mouse. (pnas.org)
  • In the 1940s she became the first person to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro, which allowed for more efficient means of creating pure strains of cells for study. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • For many years it was assumed that HEK 293 cells were generated by transformation of either a fibroblastic, endothelial or epithelial cell, all of which are abundant in kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenoviruses transform neuronal lineage cells much more efficiently than typical human kidney epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Lanza
  • Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology , says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes. (wunc.org)
  • identical cells
  • A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitotic division of a cell - resulting in two identical cells - is an example of a prototype that plays an active role in copying itself and thus, demonstrates the Prototype pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • After conception, the zygote (fertilized egg) is allowed to divide and nutrients are added to promote cell division. (essaypride.com)
  • Each of those two cells is able to divide indefinitely, "so from a small vial of those cells we could grow up as many cells as we would ever want," Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing an enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • It did not take her long to make an impact, as almost immediately after joining she made her largest discovery involving a method of cloning mammalian cancer cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, HEK 293 cells should not be used as an in vitro model of typical kidney cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical
  • Although cloning has some benefits, attempts to clone a human will bring up many moral and ethical issues. (essaypride.com)
  • However, there remain ethical concerns over the implications of using SCNT to develop stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Dolly's birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern - along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases. (wunc.org)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • artificial
  • Chemists have engineered a plastic artificial cell containing organelles capable of producing the various steps in a chemical reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • Graham and coworkers provided evidence that HEK 293 cells and other human cell lines generated by adenovirus transformation of human embryonic kidney cells have many properties of immature neurons, suggesting that the adenovirus preferentially transformed a neuronal lineage cell in the original kidney culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • March 5, 2012 -- One of 11 patients facing death from treatment-resistant, late-stage melanoma is cancer free 3.5 years after experimental treatment with clones of his own immune cells. (webmd.com)
  • Her experimental procedure required 929 iterations to find a combination of environmental and cell conditions that induced cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • originally derived
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • attempts
  • Cloning Attempts to create a human being by cloning should be banned for several reasons. (essaypride.com)
  • They injected it into 77 human egg cells, and from all those attempts, managed to create two viable cells that contained DNA from one or the other man. (wunc.org)
  • SCNT
  • SCNT has been used to clone animals before, and is thought to have potential applications in the study and treatment of human diseases. (www.nhs.uk)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • single
  • When the cell implementation is backed by a single byte[] (Like KeyValue) this can be done in single step copy. (apache.org)
  • When ultimately many cells are produced by a single cell, clonal expansion is said to have taken place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanford developed micropipettes where single cells could be picked up and isolated from under the microscope and placed in a detailed microenvironment, where diffusion of cellular products was restricted to inside a small closed culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, after reading this article I wanted more insight on the topic of cloning, so I researched it more in depth on the Internet. (essaypride.com)
  • However, during course of cell division, one of the cells can get mutated further and acquire new characteristics to diverge as a new clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the original adenovirus transformation was inefficient, suggesting that the cell that finally produced the HEK 293 line may have been unusual in some fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Many people have different opinions about how and when things should be cloned. (essaypride.com)
  • For instance, two plasma cells belonging to the same clone could be derived from different memory cells (in turn with shared clonality) and could be residing in quite distant locations, such as the cervical (in the neck) and inguinal (in the groin) lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • successful
  • This research is the first time the technique has been successful using human cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Successful treatment depended on isolating and cloning just the right kind of cancer -fighting immune cell. (webmd.com)
  • newly
  • True copy means all the attributes of the newly created Object should be the same as the Object you are cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • It is involved in the regulation of adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. (mybiosource.com)