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  • SCNT
  • The first study to review the long-term health outcomes of cloning, the authors found no evidence of late-onset, non-communicable diseases other than some minor examples of osteoarthritis and concluded "We could find no evidence, therefore, of a detrimental long-term effect of cloning by SCNT on the health of aged offspring among our cohort. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • biology
  • Remember the definition of a mammal from your high school biology textbook? (apologeticspress.org)
  • The word 'cloning' has various meanings in biology. (libretexts.org)
  • Some of the figures I showed are from Lodish et al, Molecular Cell Biology (4th edition, 2000), or are similar to figures from that book. (libretexts.org)
  • To the contrary, we found that cloned pups can be produced from adult, fully differentiated somatic cells, a conclusion that goes against popular opinion and current hypotheses," says Dr. Yang, animal science professor, director of the University of Connecticut's Center for Regenerative Biology and co-corresponding author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • These stem cells, he said, are "the holy grail," which scientists will use to cure juvenile diabetes, spinal-cord injuries, MS, Parkinson's disease and who knows what other dreadful human ailments. (dailypress.com)
  • Human scientists have cloned lots of species. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • 1997
  • For example, in May and June 1997, I authored a series on "Cloning-Scientific and Biblical Ramifications. (apologeticspress.org)
  • On February 24, 1997, President Bill Clinton gave the NBAC 90 days to advise him on ethical issues concerning the cloning of human beings (Eiseman). (scribd.com)
  • 1998
  • Nineteen European countries including France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Germany signed a treaty in 1998 prohibiting human cloning (DuPrau 77). (scribd.com)
  • reproductive
  • For example, Harvard graduate and founder of a company dedicated to reproductive technology, Richard Seed declared that he would move to Japan and be the first to create a human clone (Andrews). (scribd.com)
  • The two main types of cloning are reproductive and therapeutic. (scribd.com)
  • Reproductive cloning would be done with the purpose of creating new life, for infertile couples for example. (scribd.com)
  • 2018
  • On 24 January 2018, two monkey clones were reported to have been created with the technique for the first time. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • only the nucleus of the cell to be cloned is used, and it is transferred to an egg cell that has been deprived of its own nucleus. (libretexts.org)
  • The steps involve removing the DNA from an oocyte (unfertilised egg), and injecting the nucleus which contains the DNA to be cloned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials used in this procedure are a microscope, a holding pipette (small vacuum) to keep the oocyte in place, and a micropipette (hair-thin needle) capable of extracting the nucleus of a cell using a vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Cows are commonly cloned to select those that have the best milk production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commonly a virus that has been altered to carry human DNA is used to deliver the healthy gene to the targeted cells of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • PITTSBURGH, Oct. 1 - New research dismisses the notion that adult stem cells are necessary for successful animal cloning, proving instead that cells that have completely evolved to a specific type not only can be used for cloning purposes, but they may be a better and more efficient starting point. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (eurekalert.org)
  • human
  • When the editors of Time screamed on the cover of their February 19, 2001 issue, "Human Cloning is Closer than You Think! (apologeticspress.org)
  • From a biological classification viewpoint, is a human a mammal? (apologeticspress.org)
  • Popular in science fiction and the cause of a lot of disagreement in the real world, human cloning is a delicate issue. (scribd.com)
  • Though actual human cloning has not yet been achieved, other relevant scientific endeavours have been successful. (scribd.com)
  • Interestingly, human cloning itself was not banned in the United States at this time, though certain states banned it. (scribd.com)
  • However, around the world, many countries began producing legislation that forbade human cloning. (scribd.com)
  • This was all done before much debate had been had over the ethics of human cloning. (scribd.com)
  • Though neither of these attempts were successful, both show that attempts on human cloning will still occur as long as there is no worldwide legislation. (scribd.com)
  • order to clone a human, one might have to experiment on foetuses past this point. (scribd.com)
  • With such disagreement in simply what constitutes a human being, it is no wonder human cloning is a major social issue in the world. (scribd.com)
  • Not so long ago, he scraped some cells from his arm and injected them into human female eggs that had been treated to remove their own genetic material. (dailypress.com)
  • The science-fiction nut jobs are imagining cloned armies of human killing machines. (dailypress.com)
  • researchers
  • As proof, researchers report they created two mouse pups from a type of blood cell that itself is incapable of dividing to produce a second generation of its own kind. (eurekalert.org)
  • Still, lab entrepreneurs in Korea, China, England and elsewhere are suddenly worried that their precious head start on cloning technology is about to be snatched back by a few forward-looking biotech researchers in the United States. (dailypress.com)
  • context
  • Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών klōn, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. (asu.edu)
  • produce
  • Also, the result showed that the heat mammals produce through respiration allowed their bodies to be above room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Many have attributed cloning's limited success to a theory that clones must be derived from adult stem cells, which reside in a specific area of each tissue and remain quiescent until they are activated by the presence of disease or tissue injury. (medgadget.com)
  • essentially
  • This essentially means that what sets apart a clone from any other being is that it only had one parent and is a duplicate of said parent. (scribd.com)
  • create
  • He was talking about the promise of humans to create "patient-specific stem cells" - the raw material for all of the body's specialized tissues from heart to muscle and more. (dailypress.com)
  • It cost $22,000 to create several handsome EGGSfile clones. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • type
  • Because stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into any specialized cell type, they have been heralded for their promise for treating a variety of diseases and conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • form
  • Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for more than 50 thousand years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Although senescent cells can no longer replicate, they remain metabolically active and commonly adopt an immunogenic phenotype consisting of a pro-inflammatory secretome, the up-regulation of immune ligands, a pro-survival response, promiscuous gene expression (pGE) and stain positive for senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • In polarized epithelial cells, syntaxin 3 localizes to the apical plasma membrane and is involved in membrane fusion of apical trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • The clear distinction between apical and basolateral trafficking pathways makes epithelial cells a good system in which to test the central prediction of the SNARE hypothesis on their contribution to the overall specificity of trafficking pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Among its related pathways are Regulation of retinoblastoma protein and Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers . (genecards.org)
  • Embryonic
  • Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role in age-related diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectopic expression of the embryonic transcription factor, NANOG, is shown to reverse senescence and restore the proliferation and differentiation potential of senescent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • function
  • These cells exhibit functional and structural asymmetry in their apical and basolateral plasma membranes that is essential to their function. (rupress.org)