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  • morally
  • The experiments involve creating and then destroying human embryos for research purposes, which some find morally repugnant. (kwit.org)
  • But beyond that, the creation and destruction of a human embryo is morally repugnant to people who believe an embryo has the same moral standing as a human being. (kwit.org)
  • sheep
  • It seems it is much harder to clone a human being than it is to clone a sheep, a frog or a mouse. (bioethics.net)
  • Scottish embryologist Ian Wilmut and his colleagues had taken a mammary gland cell from a six-year-old Scottish Finn Dorset ewe and, via a process known as "nuclear transfer," succeeded in placing the genetic material from that cell into a hollowed-out egg cell from a Scottish Blackface sheep. (apologeticspress.org)
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Researchers
  • It should be noted that no babies were born as a result of this research, and the researchers had no intention of producing a live cloned human being. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers have been looking into ways of using a patient's own cells to create embryonic stem cells, as this would ensure that the genetic material in any cells used therapeutically would match the patient's DNA. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers report that previous attempts to produce embryonic stem cells using this technique have failed, as the cells stopped dividing before they reached an advanced enough stage. (www.nhs.uk)
  • During their experiments, researchers identified two reasons for this inability to sufficiently grow the cells and developed techniques to overcome these limiting factors. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This study will no doubt be very exciting for researchers working with stem cells, but we're still a long way from the findings of this study being translated into new treatments for conditions such as Parkinson's disease or heart disease . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers then optimised methods to prompt the egg cell to start and continue to divide using electricity and chemical compounds, including caffeine. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers showed that the resulting embryos could develop to a stage where they could produce healthy stem cells containing the genes from the skin cells. (kwit.org)
  • But since the human cells used in the study appeared even more fragile, researchers said it was unlikely that clones could be made. (abc.net.au)
  • Researchers say other stem cell sources may be easier and less controversial. (abc.net.au)
  • NBC News ] Researchers say they have made powerful stem cells from both young and old adults using cloning techniques, and also found clues about why it is so difficult to do this with human beings. (bioethics.net)
  • In January 2007, researchers at Wake Forest University reported that "stem cells drawn from amniotic fluid donated by pregnant women hold much of the same promise as embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • A scientist removes the nucleus from a human egg using a pipette. (kwit.org)
  • The nucleus of a body cell is removed and inserted into an egg cell which has had its nucleus removed. (abc.net.au)
  • The original donated nucleus may have come from, say, a skin cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The resulting embryos were then used as a source of stem cells, which can be used to create specialised tissue cells for transplant operations. (abc.net.au)
  • Cells from these embryos closely match the men and could, in theory, be used to make near-identical tissue, blood or organ transplants for the men. (bioethics.net)
  • Dr. Paul McHugh, psychiatry professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, argues that "without fooling around with it," the cloning process does not produce a viable human organism and should be regarded as tissue culture. (lifeissues.net)
  • For a viable fetus to develop, the egg needs to reprogram the genome of the skin cell, shutting off genes specific for skin tissue and turning on genes needed for embryonic development, genes that are normally dormant in tissue-specific cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • In other words, the egg needs to erase all tissue-specific memories from the skin cell and revert it into a genomic blank slate. (eurekalert.org)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells have been used to repair tissue damaged by disease or age. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells could be harnessed in vitro, it might be a means of deriving cell or tissue types virtually to order. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of their plasticity and potentially unlimited capacity for self-renewal, embryonic stem cell therapies have been proposed for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • Actually the nice thing about this is that if you had some genetic disease(like cystic fibrosis) you could take the genetic material out of one of your skin cells, correct it, and then use that with this process to make an embryo. (slashdot.org)
  • Next, they removed most of the DNA from each egg and replaced the genetic material with DNA from other peoples' skin cells. (kwit.org)
  • Dr Mitalipov said that since the reprogrammed cells use genetic material from the patient, there was no concern about transplant rejection. (abc.net.au)
  • The offspring having all of the mother's genetic material are called full clones and those having only half are called half clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiate
  • Embryonic stem cells are unique in that they are able to develop (or differentiate) into other types of cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Stem cells can duplicate themselves or can be made to differentiate into cells with specific functions such as developing into heart muscle or cells that produce insulin. (lifeissues.net)
  • These stem cells can differentiate into all other cells in the human body and are the subject of much scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • They're basically charged with the ability to make any other cells and tissues, and even organs. (abc.net.au)
  • He would limit the existence of the cloned embryo to 14 days so as to prevent further development of the embryo that would allow for the harvesting of human organs or tissues. (lifeissues.net)
  • We should use it to produce babies rather than cells or tissues to be harvested for purposes dictated by other human beings," he said. (lifeissues.net)
  • destruction
  • At this point, the Congress intervened and passed the Dickey-Wicker Amendment in 1995 (the final bill, which included the Dickey Amendment, was signed into law by Bill Clinton) which prohibited any federal funding for the Department of Health and Human Services be used for research that resulted in the destruction of an embryo regardless of the source of that embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third bill would encourage research that would isolate pluripotent, i.e., embryonic-like, stem cells without the destruction of human embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Only one group has ever succeeded, and their lines were generated using fetal and infant cells. (bioethics.net)
  • pluripotent
  • In 2012, the Nobel Prize for Medicine was attributed conjointed to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • make
  • But as Anthony tells us, the ongoing battle over stem cell research could make this advancement DOA. (seeker.com)
  • Although it was possible to do cloning and make stem cell lines using cloning in other species, it proved very, very difficult to do in humans," he told AM. (abc.net.au)
  • And what this group was able to do, by fine-tuning the technology and using detailed knowledge of human reproduction, was to make this technique workable in man. (abc.net.au)
  • If verified, it would be only the second confirmed time someone's been able to use cloning methods to make human embryonic stem cells, considered the body's master cells. (bioethics.net)
  • The few clones that make it into adulthood are often plagued by bizarre health complications. (eurekalert.org)
  • While being charged with fraud and embezzlement, he has kept a relatively low profile at the Sooam Bioengineering Research Institute in Yongin, Gyeonggi Province, where he currently leads research efforts on creating cloned pig embryos and using them to make embryonic stem-cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • fertilization
  • Tobias Brambrink, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab, tried a different approach, comparing gene expression in cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • To ensure the accuracy of his results, he compared five lines of cloned stem cells with five fertilization-derived stem cell lines. (eurekalert.org)
  • from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • frozen
  • Additionally, surrogates showed a significantly higher pregnancy rate following frozen embryo transfers than their non-surrogate counterparts. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after that his human cloning experiments were revealed to be fraudulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • if you chop an embryo in two you end up with identical twins, which is exactly how it happens naturally. (slashdot.org)
  • This report pioneered the importance of naturally occurring retrovirus sequences in human genes, now thought to be important to the genetic plasticity involved in human evolution and biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • viable
  • Furthermore, they specifically proposed hESC research should steer away from attempting to produce viable offspring, focusing efforts on the use of cloned embryos as a viable source for deriving stem cell lines instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • holy grail
  • It's been a holy grail that we've been after for years," says Dr. John Gearhart , a stem cell pioneer at the University of Pennsylvania. (kwit.org)
  • Hwang
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2011, Hwang visited Libya as part of a $133 million project in the North African country to build a stem cell research center and transfer relevant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • His alleged success was touted as the fifth instance in the world in cow cloning, with a notable caveat: Hwang failed to provide scientifically verifiable data for the research, giving only media sessions and photo-ops. (wikipedia.org)
  • During that period, Hwang claimed to have created a BSE-resistant cow (which has not been verified) and also stated his intention to clone a Siberian tiger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Hwang had already established himself as an expert in animal cloning and secured celebrity status in South Korea in the late 90s, his alleged sudden success came as a surprise because this was the first reported success in human somatic cell cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • lines
  • We started last year in September and by mid-December we had already established some stem cell lines. (abc.net.au)
  • In February 2001, George W. Bush requested a review of the NIH's guidelines, and after a policy discussion within his circle of supporters, implemented a policy in August of that year to limit the number of embryonic stem cell lines that could be used for research. (wikipedia.org)
  • professor
  • This is a case in which one is deliberately setting out to create a human being for the sole purpose of destroying that human being," says Dr. Daniel Sulmasy , a professor of medicine and a bioethicist at the University of Chicago. (kwit.org)
  • Professor of Stem Cell Sciences at the University of Melbourne, Martin Pera, says the discovery is enormously exciting. (abc.net.au)
  • However
  • A few, however, survive and give rise to an embryonic stem cell line, and these appear to be thoroughly reprogrammed. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, since they must be derived from early human embryos their production and use in research has been a hotly debated topic as the emt introduce new cells into adult bodies for possible treatment of cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders and other medical conditions. (wikipedia.org)