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  • ethical
  • Since the first fertilization of a human egg in the laboratory in 1968, scientific and technological breakthroughs have raised ethical dilemmas and generated policy controversies on both sides of the Atlantic. (scribd.com)
  • Over time, he argues, partisan debate and religious-secular polarization have come to overshadow ethical reflection and political deliberation on the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research. (scribd.com)
  • I believe that the moral status of the embryo and the promise of biomedical research to reduce human suffering are critical and complex ethical issues. (scribd.com)
  • Human cloning has moved closer to reality, and even therapeutic cloning is fraught with ethical perils. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Information on presidential actions and legislative activities related to the ethical and moral issues surrounding cloning is provided, as well as relevant Web sites. (unt.edu)
  • But it hopes the ethical and scientific questions about when and how embryos are used will be determined by a parliamentary committee that begins hearings this fall, Health Minister Allan Rock's spokesman said in late July. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • In order to ensure that federal funds are used to support only stem cell research that is scientifically sound, legal, and ethical, the NIH will examine the derivation of all existing stem cell lines and create a registry of those lines that satisfy this criteria. (archives.gov)
  • However, clinical application of stem cells raises numerous ethical and safety concerns. (medsci.org)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of the most important ethical issues in stem cell therapy, as a contribution to the controversial debate about their clinical usage in regenerative and transplantation medicine. (medsci.org)
  • We describe and discuss ethical challenges regarding human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, therapeutic potential and clinical translation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and safety issues of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy. (medsci.org)
  • Thus, the prospect of applying this technique in humans is troubling for scientific and safety reasons in addition to a variety of ethical reasons related to our ideas about the natural ordering of family and successive generations. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The recent news that almost all of the Korean work was fraudulent, however, has cast a pall over stem cell research and given ammunition to those who oppose it on ethical and religious grounds. (dartmouth.edu)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulatory issues are addressed in discussions of the ethical debate surrounding the derivation of human embryonic stem cells and the current policies governing their use in the United States and abroad, including the rules and conditions regulating federal funding and questions of intellectual property. (springer.com)
  • Upon this base of activities and relationships, GPI serves as a communications channel, helping to build the knowledge base needed for ethical and thoughtful policy-making in support of scientifically and medically worthy research and clinical translation in the broad field of stem cells and the even broader field of developmental biology. (nih.gov)
  • Here we want to emphasize a common theme that runs through this letter: the concept that the Final Guidelines should be regarded as a safe harbor , not as the only set of procedures by which applicants for NIH funding can establish that the derivation of hESCs proposed for use in research can meet the ethical requirements embodied in the Draft Guidelines. (nih.gov)
  • Research
  • The team, at Massachusetts-based Advanced Cell Technology and the Institute for Stem Cell Research in Los Angeles, say they used the cloning methods to create the stem cells to match a 35-year-old man and a 75-year-old man. (bioethics.net)
  • In Embryo Politics , Thomas Banchoff provides a comprehensive overview of political struggles aboutembryo research during four decades in four countries-the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. (scribd.com)
  • Embryo research is one of the few political issues with no historical precedent. (scribd.com)
  • As a consequence, several countries have prohibited human cloning but are racing forward with stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Two years ago, the Australian government decided to allow human embryos existing in fertility clinics to be used in stem cell research. (washingtontimes.com)
  • U.S. studies have gone at a slower pace, a consequence of President Bush's decision to limit federal funding of stem-cell research to a small number of lines. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those issues are examined in some detail in the recently issued report of the President's Council on Bioethics, "Monitoring Stem Cell Research," available at www.bioethics.gov. (washingtontimes.com)
  • This report discusses issues regarding stem cell research. (unt.edu)
  • With certain restrictions, the President has announced that federal funds may be used to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells. (unt.edu)
  • Recent scientific achievements in cell and developmental biology have provided unprecedented opportunities for advances in biomedical research. (bioscientifica.com)
  • At the moment, the government would allow stem-cell research using embryos that are less than 14 days old and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The government's draft bill would allow surplus embryos to be used for medical research with the consent of the egg and sperm donors. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • Mr. Rock's draft appeared only after the government received polling data showing that most Canadians would allow the use of donated embryos for stem-cell research. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The poll suggested that 86 per cent of Canadians would allow use of embryos in research with proper government regulation. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The federal government does not provide funding for scientific research involving stem cells, but has received patent applications from biotech firms planning to clone embryos for research purposes. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • want to halt stem-cell research that uses fertilized human eggs. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • In a direct appeal to George W. Bush at the papal summer retreat on July 23rd, the Pope told the visiting U.S. President that the creation of human embryos for research purposes is morally wrong. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • But a Vatican spokesman said later that the Pope opposes any stem-cell research using embryos. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The President's decision reflects his fundamental commitment to preserving the value and sanctity of human life and his desire to promote vital medical research. (archives.gov)
  • More than 60 existing stem cell lines from genetically diverse populations around the world are expected to be available for federally-funded research. (archives.gov)
  • Today's decision relates only to the use of federal funds for research on existing stem cell lines derived in accordance with the criteria set forth above. (archives.gov)
  • The potential of embryonic stem cell research. (archives.gov)
  • To create embryonic stem cells for research, a "stem cell line" must be created from the inner cell mass of a week-old embryo. (archives.gov)
  • Depending on the goal of the research, large animals as models of pulmonary disease often resemble the situation of the human lung much better than mice do. (jove.com)
  • BAC's deliberations on embryonic stem cell research helped shape the government policies that helped Singapore pursue its goal of becoming one of the biggest investors of embryonic stem cell research in the early twenty-first century. (asu.edu)
  • One biomedical endeavor the government sought to fund was embryonic stem cell (ESC) research. (asu.edu)
  • By 2000, several countries had declared their stances on the legality of conducting and funding embryonic stem cell research , many with the aid of institutional bioethics boards. (asu.edu)
  • For example, the Human Genetics Subcommittee was created in 2001 and the Subcommittee on Research Involving Human Participants was created in 2007. (asu.edu)
  • In December 2000, BAC began to examine embryonic stem cell research . (asu.edu)
  • F ive years ago, Michael West, the president of a small, privately funded biotech company called Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), asked me to help form an ethics advisory board to provide oversight for the company's planned research on human embryonic stem cells. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Stimulated by this research, state legislatures around the U.S. began considering funding stem cell research to fill the gap left by federal abandonment. (dartmouth.edu)
  • To evaluate the Italian physicians' knowledge/information level about the therapeutic potential of stem cells, the research choice between embryonic and cordonal stem cells, and the preference between autologous and heterologous storage of cordonal stem cells, we performed a national survey. (hindawi.com)
  • They prefer research on cordonal stem cells rather than on embryo stem cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cells research is recently reproposing the paradigmatic case of the reciprocal influence between science and ideological (e.g., political, religious, economic, and social) issues. (hindawi.com)
  • More specifically, an important question deals with the impact upon national regulation and social behaviours of the scientific community experts' advice regarding stem cells research and its exploitation for health care purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • Translational medicine thus represents a stem of scientific research that aims to move "from bench to bedside" or from laboratory experiments through clinical trials to point-of-care patient applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of May 2019 [update] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there is great interest in the potential for using stem cells as cell replacements and other treatments for diseases that currently have no cure, research on the biology of human embryonic stem cells is still in its infancy. (springer.com)
  • In the end though the debate is quite a simple one, and is based on the value our representatives put on human life or in permitting scientific research at any cost. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • On the other hand proponents for change argue instead that embryos may have to be sacrificed for the sake of research which could lead to major breakthroughs in a host of diseases and ailments. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • The research was strictly limited to embryos which had been produced during the IVF program - a program intended to result in birth, but which were going to be destroyed anyway. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • The current debate is about how the embryonic stem cells used in research are derived," he wrote. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • A further fear is that a green light now for embryonic cloning research will merely be a stepping stone towards a more open slather approach in future years. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • GPI is a not-for-profit organization formed in 2003 with the mission of promoting and defending stem cell research and its application in medicine to develop therapeutics and cures for many otherwise intractable diseases and disorders. (nih.gov)
  • GPI congratulates NIH on its tireless efforts over the past 35 years to achieve a position of global leadership in the field of human embryology through both extramurally funded and intramurally conducted human embryonic stem cell ( hESC ) and related medical research. (nih.gov)
  • Much of the hope invested in embryonic stem (ES) cell research surrounds its promise to provide a broad spectrum of medical applications. (stembook.org)
  • Led by gynecologist Zhang Lizhu, the PUTH research team had devoted more than four years to the human IVF-ET project. (asu.edu)
  • In 1913 Franklin P. Mall, Professor of Anatomy at Johns Hopkins Medical School, applied for a Carnegie grant to support his research with human embryos. (asu.edu)
  • With a touchy issue like embryonic stem cell research, our passions sometimes obscure reality. (blogspot.com)
  • Right now, though, let me say this: I believe today -- as I believed and stated in 2001, prior to the establishment of current policy -- that the federal government should fund embryonic stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • After all, principles are meant to stand the test of time -- even when applied to a field changing as rapidly as stem cell research. (blogspot.com)
  • Q: What is the effect of Frist's announcement of his support for the federal funding of embryonic stem cell research? (blogspot.com)
  • A: Conservatives who have been fighting federal funding of embryonic stem cell research concede Frist's announcement was a major blow to their cause. (blogspot.com)
  • An appendix is presented that shows an overview of the science of embryonic stem cell research. (ebscohost.com)
  • Reports on the approval given by the bioethics committee of Japan's Science and Technology Council for research involving the use of embryonic stem cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Discusses the government's delay in deciding whether to permit research into the therapeutic use of human embryonic stem cells in Great Britain. (ebscohost.com)
  • The author reflects on U.S. President Barack Obama's executive order to lift limitations on federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article focuses on a research that develop synthetic variants of the Grb2 SH2 domain of proteins, which bound specifically to one single phosphotyrosine motif, in mouse embryonic stem cells using affinity clamp approach. (ebscohost.com)
  • Focuses on human embryonic stem (ES) cells research. (ebscohost.com)
  • Reports that London, England-based Nuffield Council on Bioethics has released a report stating that research on human embryonic stem cells for the treatment of disease should be allowed. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Case for Stem Cell Research. (ebscohost.com)
  • An essay is presented on the delay of the progress of embryonic stem cell research for the treatment of various diseases due to debates regarding the use of human embryos in the research. (ebscohost.com)
  • differentiation
  • therefore, it is proposed that after directed cell differentiation, the cells could be transplanted without immune rejection to treat degenerative disorders such as diabetes, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease (among others). (sciencemag.org)
  • On the practical side, these topics range from the problems of deriving human embryonic stem cells and driving their differentiation along specific lineages, regulating their development into mature cells, and bringing stem cell therapy to clinical trials. (springer.com)
  • Third, the directed differentiation of those patient-specific pluripotent cells into the cell type relevant to their disease. (stembook.org)
  • donor
  • This involves an erasure of the gene expression program of the respective donor cell and the establishment of the well-orchestrated sequence of expression of an estimated number of 10 000-12 000 genes regulating embryonic and foetal development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This concept, known as "therapeutic cloning," refers to the transfer of the nucleus of a somatic cell into an enucleated donor oocyte ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The manipulator is used to remove the nucleus from an egg which is then fused with a cell from a donor animal. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • 2001
  • Newer technologies for cell derivation have overcome these problems, but federally funded researchers can't use them since they were created after August 2001. (dartmouth.edu)
  • fetuses
  • in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. (jove.com)
  • In addition, female animals carrying cloned fetuses may face serious risks, including death from cloning-related complications. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Bovine
  • The following article reviews the present knowledge on the epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus, with emphasis on DNA methylation, imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and telomere length restoration in bovine development. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. (jove.com)
  • Dolly
  • The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg that produced Dolly was an extension of experiments that had been ongoing for over 40 years. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Recently it was reported that Dolly has arthritis, although it is not yet clear whether the five-and-a-half-year-old sheep is suffering from the condition as a result of the cloning process. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • The first cloned animal Dolly the sheep was created in 1996 using expensive and time-consuming cell surgery with a micromanipulator. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • vitro
  • In vitro fertilization typically produces more embryos than required. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The Pope did not specifically condemn the use of embryos created initially to help women become pregnant -- in vitro fertilization -- if those embryos were no longer needed and would otherwise be destroyed. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • These cells could then be differentiated into the affected cell type of the patient and studied in vitro, or used to replace the damaged or missing cells. (jove.com)
  • Notably, these disease-relevant patient cells can also be used for in vitro disease modeling which may yield new insights into disease mechanisms and drug discovery. (stembook.org)
  • While some success has been reported recently in the in vitro modeling of degenerative diseases by introducing known disease-causing alleles into ES cells (Di Giorgio et al. (stembook.org)
  • He measured the conditions and timings for in vitro (out of the body) maturation of oocytes from diverse mammals including mice, rats, hamsters, pigs, cows, sheep, and rhesus monkeys, as well as humans. (asu.edu)
  • On 10 March 1988, China's first baby conceived through human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET), commonly referred to as a test-tube baby, was born at the Peking Hospital (PUTH) in Beijing. (asu.edu)
  • The biomedical accomplishment of human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) took years to become the successful technique that presently enables infertile couples to have their own children. (asu.edu)
  • Robert Geoffrey Edwards, a British developmental biologist at University of Cambridge, began exploring human in vitro fertilization (IVF) as a way to treat infertility in 1960. (asu.edu)
  • Collaborating with other researchers, Edwards eventually fertilized a human egg in vitro in 1969. (asu.edu)
  • President's Council o
  • Mr. Bush will create a new President's Council on Bioethics to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behavioural science and technology. (theglobeandmail.com)
  • The President will create a new President's Council on Bioethics, chaired by Dr. Leon Kass, an expert in biomedical ethics and a professor at the University of Chicago, to study the human and moral ramifications of developments in biomedical and behaviorial science and technology. (archives.gov)
  • Researchers
  • NBC News ] Researchers say they have made powerful stem cells from both young and old adults using cloning techniques, and also found clues about why it is so difficult to do this with human beings. (bioethics.net)
  • Had it been the latter (a technique almost universally condemned as unethical), the researchers could have attempted to initiate a pregnancy by implanting the cloned embryos in a womb. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Stem cells have raised tremendous expectations among the medical doctors, researchers, patients, and the general public due to their capacity to differentiate into a broad range of cell types. (medsci.org)
  • Some leading U.S. stem cell researchers moved to other countries. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Researchers have discovered that chemotherapy provides the perfect backdrop for 'sleeping' cancer to churn out deadly cancer stem cells. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • Researchers found that modifying blood stem cells to raise their levels of a T cell-blocking protein called PD-L1 reversed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • In a series of experiments during mid 1930s, a team of researchers in New York helped establish that bacteria of the species Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans, and in infants can cause toxoplasmosis, a disease that inflames brains, lungs, and hearts, and that can organisms that have it. (asu.edu)
  • diseases
  • Therapeutic cloning has long been envisioned as a means for generating patient-specific stem cells that could be used to treat a range of age-related diseases," said Dr. Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer for Advanced Cell Technology. (bioethics.net)
  • Health care professionals have long been excited by the potential that such cells have for treating a wide range of diseases. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Cell death and degeneration cause some of the most serious diseases still facing us-diabetes, Parkinson's, and a host of diseases of aging. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Because stem cells have the potential to generate fresh, healthy cells of nearly any type, there is interest in exploring their use to treat and cure various diseases. (stem-cells-news.com)
  • In 1908, Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia to describe a group of diseases that cause changes in thought processes and behavior in humans as well as difficulties relating to the world. (asu.edu)
  • The regulatory regimes of USA and EU based their false claim that the cloned animals are true clones on the baseless assumption that the mitochondrial genomes do not count when in fact the mitochondria play crucial roles in in a number of diseases of the nervous system, in cell suicide and in aging. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • These well-characterized ESC lines not only will enrich our understanding of pluripotency programs in the ungulate species but also will provide a useful resource for the creation of transgenic ungulate models of human diseases. (pnas.org)
  • experiments
  • This chronology also addresses subsequent reports of other cloning experiments, including the first one using human cells. (unt.edu)
  • Tasmanian Senator Guy Barnett recently summarised the key issue with the current legislation when he says MPs will be voting to permit the creation of human embryos for experiments. (newsweekly.com.au)
  • In a series of experiments between 1960 and 1965, Robert Geoffrey Edwards discovered how to make mammalian egg cells, or oocytes, mature outside of a female's body. (asu.edu)
  • genomics
  • Participating in this way in a commercial enterprise ensures that advances in cell biology and genomics are applied ethically. (dartmouth.edu)
  • potential
  • Eighty-seven % of the physicians interviewed proved to have a general knowledge about stem cells and believe in their therapeutic potential. (hindawi.com)
  • Another Nobel Laureate , James D. Watson , publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • In this review, we consider the mRNAs and novel genes with unique expression and imprinting patterns that were discovered using systems biology approaches with primate pluripotent stem and germ cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In theory, the oocyte's cytoplasm would reprogram the transferred nucleus by silencing all the somatic cell genes and activating the embryonic ones. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2002
  • By late 2002, when ACT's therapeutic cloning program was experiencing its first successes, its funding ran out and the work was halted. (dartmouth.edu)
  • In 2002, a technique called handmade cloning was introduced, which is cheaper and simpler, without the need for micromanipulation and also works better. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • epigenetic
  • The most critical factor is epigenetic reprogramming of the transferred somatic cell nucleus from its differentiated status into the totipotent state of the early embryo. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). (jove.com)
  • animals
  • However, despite cloning success in animals, the derivation of stem cells from cloned human embryos has proven elusive. (bioethics.net)
  • Many cloned animals die in utero, even at late stages or soon after birth, and those that survive frequently exhibit severe birth defects. (stemcellclinic.net)
  • Hunter dissected thousands of animals and human cadavers to study the structures and functions of organ systems. (asu.edu)
  • Governments in North America and in the European Union (EU) have approved the production and sale of meat and milk products from cloned animals and they have not required that those items be identified and accounted for so it is not presently possible to state how much of our diet includes cloned animal products . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the sale of unidentified cloned animal products in 2008 but there was 'voluntary' agreement to sell only the products of offspring of the cloned animals because the first clones are frequently unhealthy . (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Human Toxoplasmosis: Occurrence in Infants as an Encephalomyelitis Verification of Transmission to Animals' (1939), by Abner Wolf et al. (asu.edu)
  • They published the results of their experiment in Human Toxoplasmosis: Occurrence in Infants as an Encephalomyelitis Verification of Transmission to Animals. (asu.edu)
  • The endothelium is the layer of cells lining the blood vessels in animals. (asu.edu)
  • moral
  • In setting out an argument about the intersection of politics, ethics, and policy, I focus on national bioethics committees, elected leaders, and their efforts to reconcile the moral status of the embryo and the imperative of biomedical progress in practice. (scribd.com)
  • nucleus
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • possibility
  • Most of the physicians involved (67%) were Catholics, and the majority were gynaecologists and paediatricians (43%) who are mainly in charge to inform future mothers about the possibility of cordonal stem cells conservation. (hindawi.com)