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  • tissues
  • Embryonic stem cells, considered the building blocks of life, can be grown into any of the 200 cell types encountered in the human body and thus be used to replace defective tissues. (hindustantimes.com)
  • The technique could allow patients to replace their failing tissues with cells that are young, healthy and genetically identical to themselves, because they would have been grown from embryos cloned from themselves. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • This legislation was needed as some researchers are speculating that they might wish to grow cloned embryos in women's uteruses and then abort them to obtain fetal tissues and organs. (icta.org)
  • genes
  • A few months after the cloned calves were born, the team removed some blood cells and measured the lengths of their telomeres -- structures on the tips of chromosomes, which carry most of the genes inside cells. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Nearly all of the key differentially-expressed genes were activated in the human clones. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In distinct contrast, the majority of these genes were down-regulated or silenced in the human-animal hybrids. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In striking contrast, the human-animal hybrids showed no difference or a down-regulation of these critical pluripotency genes effectively silencing them--thus making the generation of stem cells impossible. (bio-medicine.org)
  • While human cloning can eliminate defective genes that could transfer onto their offspring and it can help those with damaged cells it also interferes with the natural course of life. (adobe.com)
  • The researchers showed that the resulting embryos could develop to a stage where they could produce healthy stem cells containing the genes from the skin cells. (kwit.org)
  • 1998
  • 1998). A typical day-5 human embryo consists of 200-250 cells, most of which comprise the trophoblast, which is the outermost layer of the blastocyst. (stanford.edu)
  • Nineteen European countries including France, Spain, the United Kingdom, and Germany signed a treaty in 1998 prohibiting human cloning (DuPrau 77). (scribd.com)
  • research
  • The purpose of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill is to update the 1990 Act to ensure that it keeps pace with scientific and medical developments and so ensure that embryo research continues to be tightly regulated. (lynnejones.org.uk)
  • They considered that current provisions allowed this provided the research is considered necessary and desirable to increase knowledge about the development of embryos and serious disease and to enable such knowledge to be applied in developing treatments for serious disease. (lynnejones.org.uk)
  • Embryonic stem cell research, which uses cells found in three- to five-day-old human embryos to seek cures for a host of chronic diseases, has sparked a major debate in the United States. (pewforum.org)
  • In 2007, the Indian government's biomedical oversight body, the Council for Medical Research, banned reproductive cloning but voted to permit therapeutic cloning. (pewforum.org)
  • South Korea 's reputation as a leader in stem cell research suffered a significant blow in 2006 when it was discovered that the country's leading biomedical researcher, Dr. Hwang Woo-suk, falsely claimed that he was the first scientist to clone human embryonic stem cells for the purpose of clinical trials. (pewforum.org)
  • Despite the scandal, the South Korean government continues to promote therapeutic cloning for stem cell research, although reproductive cloning is forbidden. (pewforum.org)
  • Congressional Hearings: Issues raised by Human Cloning Research. (zavos.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) research offers much hope for alleviating the human suffering brought on by the ravages of disease and injury. (stanford.edu)
  • Despite the tremendous therapeutic promise of HESC research, the research has met with heated opposition because the harvesting of HESCs involves the destruction of the human embryo. (stanford.edu)
  • However, at present, the consensus in the scientific community is that both HESC and iPSC research should be pursued, as we do not yet know whether iPSCs have the same potential as HESCs or whether it is safe to transplant them into humans. (stanford.edu)
  • If looked at from a strictly consequentialist perspective, it's almost certainly the case that the potential health benefits from the research outweigh the loss of embryos involved and whatever suffering results from that loss for persons who want to protect embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • However, most of those who oppose the research argue that the constraints against killing innocent persons to promote social utility apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • Thus, as long as we accept non-consequentialist constraints on killing persons, those supporting HESC research must respond to the claim that those constraints apply to human embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • The standard view of those who oppose HESC research is that a human being begins to exist with the emergence of the one-cell zygote at fertilization. (stanford.edu)
  • Research involving human embryonic stem cells is controversial because extracting the cells requires the destruction of a human embryo - albeit one in the earliest stage of development. (hindustantimes.com)
  • But what about using cloning techniques to create embryos for medical research, rather than to create a child? (csmonitor.com)
  • At best, they require that proposals to create clonal embryos for research be approved by the Food and Drug Administration and by local review boards to ensure informed consent and patient safety. (csmonitor.com)
  • A report written by a California panel recommends that legislators ban human reproductive cloning, but approves of cloning that doesn't make babies that could benefit medical research. (wired.com)
  • The House of Representatives voted in July to ban all cloning, including 'therapeutic cloning,' the term used for cloning embryos for research. (wired.com)
  • But the California panel and many other researchers believe that the potential medical benefits of therapeutic cloning are so great that not allowing the research to go forward is unethical. (wired.com)
  • If someone wants to clone for reproductive reasons, she would most likely have a particular person in mind who she wants (to) clone, instead of using a random clone from a research lab. (wired.com)
  • 3) By contrast, research using human embryonic stem cells has been hampered by important technical difficulties (4). (vatican.va)
  • 4) The so-called 'therapeutic cloning', which would be better called 'research cloning' because we are still far from therapeutic applications, has been proposed in order to avert the potential immune rejection of embryonic stem cells derived from a donor other than the host. (vatican.va)
  • Still, many Americans -- including many in Congress -- are opposed to the creation of human embryos for research. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The new finding that some cells from clones may be especially youthful "is an argument for making human therapeutic cloning legal," said Michael West, president and chief executive officer of Advanced Cell Technology, a biotechnology company in Worcester, Mass., that sponsored the research. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The Dickey Amendment would actually allow the use of living human embryos and fetuses sexually reproduced in purely experimental research under certain dubious circumstances and if the Secretary of DHHS says so. (lifeissues.net)
  • Scope: This document describes when research activities involving human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human embryonic germ cells derived from fetal tissue , or hESC- or germ cell-derived test articles are considered human subjects research and what regulatory controls apply to that research. (lifeissues.net)
  • Under HHS [OHRP federal] regulations at 45 CFR Part 46, human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator (whether professional or student) conducting research obtains (1) data through intervention or interaction with the individual, or (2) identifiable private information . (lifeissues.net)
  • 1. The definition of " human subject research " is the focus of these Guidances, and references are given to both the current OHRP federal regulations (45 CFR 46) and to Public Law 103-43 (the NIH Revitalization Act). (lifeissues.net)
  • Questions such as these about cloning and stem-cell research-both for disease treatment and prevention and for reproduction-will be the focus of a series of events this spring on the theme, The Political Embryo: Reconceiving Human Reproduction , presented by Mount Holyoke College's Harriet L. and Paul M. Weissman Center for Leadership. (mtholyoke.edu)
  • The first human embryonic stem (hES) cell bank was officially opened in the UK in May 2004 , with Health Minister Lord Warner saying, "This potentially revolutionary research could benefit thousands of patients. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Two other researchers, Robert Briggs and Thomas King at the American Institute for Cancer Research in Washington, USA, had cloned frogs in the 1950s. (asu.edu)
  • Voted YES on forbidding human cloning for reproduction & medical research. (ontheissues.org)
  • Voted YES on banning human cloning, including medical research. (ontheissues.org)
  • Gary Bauer, president of the Family Research Council, said, "Human life begins at conception. (californiahealthline.org)
  • Years earlier, in October of 1995, Clinton had established the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) in light of bioethical concerns over research on humans. (scribd.com)
  • As stated in Executive Order 12975 by which the NBAC was organized, the purpose of this Commission was to recommend regulations on "bioethical issues arising from research on human biology and behaviour. (scribd.com)
  • ban all federal funding for cloning research as well as asking for a temporary voluntary moratorium on cloning research by private institutions until more could be learned about the issue. (scribd.com)
  • Obviously his research failed, but, no doubt at the expense of many human embryos. (scribd.com)
  • The main argument for why cloning research should be continued is the possible benefits it can have. (scribd.com)
  • But federal restrictions on human embryonic stem-cell research have prompted several state governments to take matters into their own hands. (npr.org)
  • A researcher holds a box containing viles of human embryonic stem-cell cultures at a lab in La Jolla, Ca. After approving nearly $45 million for embryonic stem-cell research in February, California's stem-cell agency has authorized another $75.7 million to fund research in the field. (npr.org)
  • Fortunately, important research on embryonic stem cells does not yet require the use of clonal embryos. (geneticsandsociety.org)
  • A moratorium would allow time for alternatives to research cloning to be investigated, for policy makers and the public to make informed judgments, and for regulatory structures to be established to oversee applications that society might decide are acceptable. (geneticsandsociety.org)
  • A moratorium on research cloning is a middle ground between the two positions of an immediate permanent ban and an unconstrained green light. (geneticsandsociety.org)
  • We are strong supporters of women's health and reproductive rights, disability rights, and biomedical research. (geneticsandsociety.org)
  • destruction
  • To show that researchers who use but do not derive HESCs participate in an immoral activity, one would further need to establish their complicity in the destruction of embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • All cloning operations would have to be monitored and an unbroken chain of custody established over each clonal embryo, from creation to destruction. (csmonitor.com)
  • Scientist
  • Without regulations in place, such embryos could also be used for human reproductive cloning, although this would be unsafe and grossly unethical," said Dr Robert Lanza, chief scientist of Massachusetts-based biotech Advanced Cell Technology and a co-author of the new study. (stabroeknews.com)
  • stem cell
  • This report analyzes the laws of 15 states that have been most active up to May 2205 in debating cloning and stem cell laws. (icta.org)
  • create
  • However, legislators would be forced to create laws forbidding women from implanting these embryos and carrying them to term. (wired.com)
  • In both cases, the egg is allowed to develop into a hollow ball with inner cell mass , the future embryo, which is harvested and destroyed to create hES cell lines. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Together, those pronuclei combine to create the whole genome required for the embryo to develop. (asu.edu)
  • Cloned cells could be used to create replacement tissue for diseased hearts, pancreatic cells for diabetics, treatments for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, nerve cells for victims of spinal cord injuries, and skin cells for burn victims. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, Harvard graduate and founder of a company dedicated to reproductive technology, Richard Seed declared that he would move to Japan and be the first to create a human clone (Andrews). (scribd.com)
  • This is a case in which one is deliberately setting out to create a human being for the sole purpose of destroying that human being," says Dr. Daniel Sulmasy , a professor of medicine and a bioethicist at the University of Chicago. (kwit.org)
  • attempts
  • Data on the reproductive cloning of animals show that only a small percentage of attempts are successful, many of the clones die during all stages of gestation, newborn clones often are abnormal or die, and the procedures may carry serious risks for the mother. (mediamonitors.net)