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  • Frog Embryos
  • Morpholinos are synthetic oligonucleotides that can be used to inhibit nuclear RNA splicing or mRNA translation and are the common gene inhibition reagent in Xenopus as neither siRNA or miRNA have yet been shown to reproducibly function in frog embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Scientists generally agree that all cloned animals are biologically flawed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Analyzing the complete gene-expression profiles of both cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells in mice, scientists at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research now have concluded that the two are, in fact, indistinguishable. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is one reason why scientists generally believe that attempting to clone a human being is morally reprehensible. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although these animals generated entirely from cloned stem cells appear to be fine, many scientists don't accept this result as definitive. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now, with reports arriving almost daily about proposals to clone humans, and with similar reports surfacing with disturbing frequency about scientists' planned use of human-derived stem cells, I believe that an in-depth analysis of these two subjects is both timely and warranted. (apologeticspress.org)
  • The news was that a mammal had been cloned from an adult cell-something that even scientists like James Watson and Francis Crick (who were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their elucidation of the molecular structure of DNA) had gone on record as stating was very likely impossible. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Shortly after the details of the procedure used to produce Dolly were published, scientists began to report one success story after another using the same procedure (or ones similar to it) to clone additional mammals from adult cells, including mice (Wakayama, et al. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Then surely the next question becomes obvious: If scientists have successfully cloned sheep, mice, cattle, goats, monkeys, and pigs (all of which are mammals), can they then clone humans-who likewise are mammals? (apologeticspress.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists can reverse engineer cell differentiation processes to understand what chemical or physical signals stem cells receive to properly differentiate. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In February 2008, a group of scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles derived stem cells from adult human skin cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the development of new microscopic and molecular techniques, including DNA sequencing, enabled scientists to confirm the hypothesis that chromosomes determine the sex of developing organisms. (asu.edu)
  • In 1992, scientists showed that telomere length (TL) in sperm increases with age in contrast to most cell of most other types. (asu.edu)
  • Gurdon's research built on the work of Thomas King and Robert Briggs in the United States, who in 1952 published findings that indicated that scientists could take a nucleus from an early embryonic cell and successfully transfer it into an unfertilized and enucleated egg cell. (asu.edu)
  • Scientists have applied somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone human and mammalian embryos as a means to produce stem cells for laboratory and medical use. (asu.edu)
  • Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century, scientists and policy makers began to take the prospect seriously in the mid-1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many nations outlawed it, while a few scientists promised to make a clone within the next few years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal
  • The February 27, 1997 issue of Nature reported it in a mundanely titled article, "Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells. (apologeticspress.org)
  • It is past time for labeling legislation that would tell consumers if aborted fetal tissue was used in the development or manufacture of products that we use like vaccines or stem cell treatments. (catholiclane.com)
  • Even if these embryos were not permitted to mature to fetal stages, their ethical and political status became debated within nations attempting to use them for research. (asu.edu)
  • regenerative medicine
  • Although translational research is not a new term, 'translational developmental biology' has been steadily gaining popularity as discoveries in cell and developmental biology, particularly those involving stem cells, provide a basis for regenerative medicine. (asu.edu)
  • successfully
  • In late 1999, the IVF procedure was carried out, and in early October of 2000, as Time reported, researchers working at the Fairview University Hospital in Minneapolis, Minnesota, successfully transferred the stem cells from the newborn's (his name is Adam) umbilical cord to Molly. (apologeticspress.org)
  • fetuses
  • in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. (jove.com)
  • During the mid-twentieth century, photographer Lennart Nilsson used endoscopes to capture the now-familiar images of embryos and fetuses. (asu.edu)
  • identical
  • Cloning livestock is basically using genetics to make an identical copy of an animal and other organisms that live on this planet. (smore.com)
  • Clones are born just like any other animal, they're like identical twins that were born at different times. (smore.com)
  • gene expression
  • Tobias Brambrink, a postdoctoral researcher in the Jaenisch lab, tried a different approach, comparing gene expression in cloned and fertilization-derived stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Edinburgh Mouse Atlas, also called the e-Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP), is an online resource comprised of the e-Mouse Atlas (EMA), a detailed digital model of mouse development, and the e-Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression (EMAGE), a database that identifies sites of gene expression in mouse embryos. (asu.edu)
  • Xenopus embryos develop very quickly and form a full set of differentiated tissues within days of fertilization, allowing rapid analysis of the effects of manipulating embryonic gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • adult cells
  • Gurdon's experiment showed that differentiated adult cells could be induced to an undifferentiated state, where they could once again become multiple cell types. (asu.edu)
  • process
  • So Californians were cool (whether they realized it or not) with creating genetically-modified human clones (the clones would have mitochondrial DNA from the woman whose egg was used in the cloning process) for medicinal purposes. (catholiclane.com)
  • Vatican and U.S. church officials oppose human cloning to extract embryonic stem cells because the process destroys the embryos, classified as human life. (lifeissues.net)
  • The process of somatic cell nuclear transplant involves two different cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As organs form, a process called organogenesis, mesoderm interacts with endoderm and ectoderm to give rise to the digestive tract, the heart and skeletal muscles, red blood cells, and the tubules of the kidneys, as well as a type of connective tissue called mesenchyme. (asu.edu)
  • 1934
  • In 1934 a fourteen-day-old embryo was discovered during a postmortem examination and became famous for being the youngest known human embryo specimen at the time. (asu.edu)
  • development
  • He would limit the existence of the cloned embryo to 14 days so as to prevent further development of the embryo that would allow for the harvesting of human organs or tissues. (lifeissues.net)
  • Future stem cell development for growing replacement organs may not even require cloning. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This would result in the egg being in the necessary phase to begin the embryo development. (smore.com)
  • Recording and contextualizing the science of embryos, development, and reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • It is a simple representation of birth, death, development, and evolution in a population of living organisms, such as bacteria. (asu.edu)
  • This concept refers to the ways in which the environment can alter the development of an organism, and its adult characteristics. (asu.edu)
  • At Columbia University in New York City, New York, Wilson studied what causes cells to differentiate during development. (asu.edu)
  • Tong concluded that an organizing center existed in the fish embryo, similar to the Spemann-Mangold organizer in amphibians and to Henson's node in chicks, and that the organizing center and cells in the fish embryo worked together to control the development of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xenopus model organism is responsible for large amounts of new knowledge on embryonic development and cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimera
  • When cells-but not DNA-from two or more genetically distinct individuals combine to form a new individual, the result is called a chimera. (asu.edu)
  • germ
  • The ovist model held that the maternal egg was the location of this preformed embryo, while the other preformationism model known as spermism preferred the paternal germ cell, as the name implies. (asu.edu)
  • Mesoderm is one of the three germ layers, groups of cells that interact early during the embryonic life of animals and from which organs and tissues form. (asu.edu)