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  • biology
  • PES Biology Human Awareness Essay: Human CloningBackgroundHuman cloning is a highly publicized, groundbreaking topic. (essaypride.com)
  • The Xenopus model organism is responsible for large amounts of new knowledge on embryonic development and cell biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, she was a member of the American Society for Cell Biology, the American Society of Human Genetics, the Tissue Culture Association, and the International Society for Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • HEK 293 cells have been widely used in cell biology research for many years, because of their reliable growth and propensity for transfection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects, plants or animals reproduce asexually. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expertise in human egg biology led Kiessling to develop the country's first human egg donor program for stem cell research in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014 - Oregon State University Commencement Address 2014 - Honorary Doctorate in Cell and Molecular Biology, Oregon State University Kiessling has published more than 100 scientific papers and given more than 60 lectures to audiences around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • He'd like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes. (wunc.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cell
  • Media coverage of this study was as varied as people's feelings are about stem cell research. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Lanza's colleagues, including Young Gie Chung at the CHA Stem Cell Institute in Seoul, Korea (with labs in Los Angeles as well), now report success. (wunc.org)
  • Writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell , they say they started with nuclear DNA extracted from the skin cells of a middle-age man and injected it into human eggs donated by four women. (wunc.org)
  • Patients with diabetes may one day benefit from stem cell therapy, as research published in the journal Nature describes the first insulin-producing cells containing the DNA of a 32-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes. (empr.com)
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four embryonic stem cell lines from human fetal somatic cells were derived from those blastocysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was a professor of theriogenology and biotechnology at Seoul National University (dismissed on March 20, 2006) who became infamous for fabricating a series of experiments, which appeared in high-profile journals, in the field of stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • On May 12, 2006, Hwang was charged with embezzlement and bioethics law violations after it emerged much of his stem cell research had been faked. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Korea Times reported on June 10, 2007, that Seoul National University fired him, and the South Korean government canceled his financial support and barred him from engaging in stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 2011, Hwang visited Libya as part of a $133 million project in the North African country to build a stem cell research center and transfer relevant technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until Hwang's claim, it was generally agreed that creating a human stem cell by cloning was next to impossible due to the complexity of primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ann A. Kiessling is an American reproductive biologist and one of the leaders in human parthenogenic stem cell research at The Bedford Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kiessling currently conducts research at the Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The need to conduct biomedical research in areas not funded by the federal government led to the incorporation of the Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kiessling is a member of the California (California Constitution Article XXXV) and Connecticut Stem Cell Research Advisory Boards, and a member of the Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committees (ESCROS) for Harvard University, Joslin Diabetes Center and Children's Hospital. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryonic cell
  • A technique appropriate to investigation of the developmental fates of distinct embryonic cell types is described and the fate of a particular type of chick myoblast (CMR-I) examined. (biologists.org)
  • world's
  • Cloning has been all over the papers and the news lately, mostly caused by the death of possibly the world's most famous animal behind Lassie, Ian Wilmut's cloned sheep, Dolly. (essaypride.com)
  • On November 2015, a Chinese biotech company Boyalife Group announced that it will partner with Hwang's laboratory, Sooam Biotech, to open the world's largest animal cloning factory in Tianjin as early as 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • Finally it happens this small idea of science fiction becomes real with the first clone, Dolly the sheep, but now people are thinking that this might not be such a good idea. (essaypride.com)
  • The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal. (wunc.org)
  • antibodies
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening (alpha-factor complementation) on X-gal medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • malignant
  • However, this view of cancer onset has been challenged in recent years and many tumors have been argued to have polyclonal origin, i.e. derived from two or more cells or clones, including malignant mesothelioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research targeted isolated mammalian cells in vitro and finding ways to trigger malignant transformations and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • transplants
  • 91% of the chick clones recovered from transplants were muscle clones, and of these 97% were CMR-I. It was concluded that CMR-I myoblasts do not undergo a change in differentiated state identifiable by clonal analysis. (biologists.org)
  • Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017[update]. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The only region in which chick nuclei appeared at significantly greater frequency than in control tissue was the dorsal thigh muscle, the region into which the cloned chick cells were placed originally. (biologists.org)
  • Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales. (biologists.org)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with Dr. Virginia Evans and a group of tissue-culture workers she became the first to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to her discovery, tissue cultures had to be composed of multiple and various human body cells in order for them to survive and grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • In 1880, a man named Walter Sutton made one of the most important discoveries towards cloning- he proved that chromosomes hold genetic information. (essaypride.com)
  • SCNT involves taking donated egg cells from women and removing their genetic material. (www.nhs.uk)
  • SCNT involved taking the nucleus (the part of a cell containing most of the genetic information) from a person's skin cells, inserting its cells into a donor's unfertilised egg cell that had its nucleus removed. (www.nhs.uk)
  • They repeated the process - this time starting with the genetic material extracted from the skin cells of a much older man. (wunc.org)
  • The genetic material, in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), continues to shorten with each cell division, and cells eventually stop dividing when they sense that their DNA is critically shortened. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allowed the advancement of research on metabolic and genetic features of the clone cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic
  • We have produced a panel of islet-specific T-cell clones from nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. (pnas.org)
  • This could lead to diabetic patients being able to produce their own cells that make insulin to replace their non-functioning cells. (empr.com)
  • patient
  • The technique could potentially be used to take skin cells from a patient to create "personalised" stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Each of these treatments captures a patient's own tumor-fighting cells, grows them to high numbers in the lab, and infuses them back into the patient. (webmd.com)
  • Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant - creating a patient-specific treatment - though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells. (wunc.org)
  • successfully
  • In the 1940s she became the first person to successfully clone a mammalian cell in vitro, which allowed for more efficient means of creating pure strains of cells for study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang first caught media attention in South Korea when he announced he successfully created a cloned dairy cow, Yeongrong-i in February 1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the aforementioned procedures are of particularly low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been successfully transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Importance: Gurdon's experiments challenged the dogma of the time which suggested that the nucleus of a differentiated cell is committed to their fate (Example: a liver cell nucleus remains a liver cell nucleus and cannot return to an undifferentiated state). (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly after that his human cloning experiments were revealed to be fraudulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang
  • His alleged success was touted as the fifth instance in the world in cow cloning, with a notable caveat: Hwang failed to provide scientifically verifiable data for the research, giving only media sessions and photo-ops. (wikipedia.org)
  • During that period, Hwang claimed to have created a BSE-resistant cow (which has not been verified) and also stated his intention to clone a Siberian tiger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hwang explained that his team used 242 eggs to create a single cell line. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • The skin cell nucleus was then fused with the donor egg cell. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiment: Gurdon used a technique known as nuclear transfer to replace the killed-off nucleus of a frog (Xenopus) egg with a nucleus from a mature cell (intestinal epithelial). (wikipedia.org)
  • Essay
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Most of the clones respond to islet-cell antigen from different mouse strains but only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells bearing the class II major histocompatibility complex of the NOD mouse. (pnas.org)
  • epithelial
  • For many years it was assumed that HEK 293 cells were generated by transformation of either a fibroblastic, endothelial or epithelial cell, all of which are abundant in kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenoviruses transform neuronal lineage cells much more efficiently than typical human kidney epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Lanza
  • Robert Lanza, chief scientific officer at Advanced Cell Technology , says that was an important step, but not ideal for medical purposes. (wunc.org)
  • identical cells
  • A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitotic division of a cell - resulting in two identical cells - is an example of a prototype that plays an active role in copying itself and thus, demonstrates the Prototype pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • After conception, the zygote (fertilized egg) is allowed to divide and nutrients are added to promote cell division. (essaypride.com)
  • Each of those two cells is able to divide indefinitely, "so from a small vial of those cells we could grow up as many cells as we would ever want," Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • The B cells in the body have two important phenotypes (functional forms) -- the antibody secreting, terminally differentiated (that is, they cannot divide further) plasma cells, and the memory and the naive cells-both of which retain their proliferative potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most other cells cannot divide indefinitely as after a few cycles of cell division the cells stop expressing an enzyme telomerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tong demonstrated that in hairy sea squirts, during the third division of cells in an embryo, cells divide unequally. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • It did not take her long to make an impact, as almost immediately after joining she made her largest discovery involving a method of cloning mammalian cancer cells in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, HEK 293 cells should not be used as an in vitro model of typical kidney cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical
  • Although cloning has some benefits, attempts to clone a human will bring up many moral and ethical issues. (essaypride.com)
  • However, there remain ethical concerns over the implications of using SCNT to develop stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Dolly's birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern - along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases. (wunc.org)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • unicellular
  • A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at "one place", or in close proximity. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • Graham and coworkers provided evidence that HEK 293 cells and other human cell lines generated by adenovirus transformation of human embryonic kidney cells have many properties of immature neurons, suggesting that the adenovirus preferentially transformed a neuronal lineage cell in the original kidney culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • March 5, 2012 -- One of 11 patients facing death from treatment-resistant, late-stage melanoma is cancer free 3.5 years after experimental treatment with clones of his own immune cells. (webmd.com)
  • Her experimental procedure required 929 iterations to find a combination of environmental and cell conditions that induced cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • attempts
  • Cloning Attempts to create a human being by cloning should be banned for several reasons. (essaypride.com)
  • They injected it into 77 human egg cells, and from all those attempts, managed to create two viable cells that contained DNA from one or the other man. (wunc.org)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • The term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών klōn, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. (wikipedia.org)
  • successful
  • This research is the first time the technique has been successful using human cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Successful treatment depended on isolating and cloning just the right kind of cancer -fighting immune cell. (webmd.com)
  • Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful. (wikipedia.org)
  • newly
  • True copy means all the attributes of the newly created Object should be the same as the Object you are cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, after reading this article I wanted more insight on the topic of cloning, so I researched it more in depth on the Internet. (essaypride.com)
  • However, during course of cell division, one of the cells can get mutated further and acquire new characteristics to diverge as a new clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the original adenovirus transformation was inefficient, suggesting that the cell that finally produced the HEK 293 line may have been unusual in some fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCNT
  • SCNT has been used to clone animals before, and is thought to have potential applications in the study and treatment of human diseases. (www.nhs.uk)
  • single cell
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When ultimately many cells are produced by a single cell, clonal expansion is said to have taken place. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Many people have different opinions about how and when things should be cloned. (essaypride.com)
  • For instance, two plasma cells belonging to the same clone could be derived from different memory cells (in turn with shared clonality) and could be residing in quite distant locations, such as the cervical (in the neck) and inguinal (in the groin) lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Applications of phage display technology include determination of interaction partners of a protein (which would be used as the immobilised phage "bait" with a DNA library consisting of all coding sequences of a cell, tissue or organism) so that the function or the mechanism of the function of that protein may be determined. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • It is involved in the regulation of adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. (mybiosource.com)