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  • genes
  • He'd like to see a library of cells created with those carefully chosen genes. (wunc.org)
  • Viruses offer an efficient means of delivering genes into cells, which they evolved to do, and are thus of great use as experimental tools. (wikipedia.org)
  • This danger can be avoided by the use of viruses which lack key genes, and which are thus unable to replicate after entering a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to propagate such viral vectors, a cell line that expresses the missing genes is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since HEK 293 cells express a number of adenoviral genes, they can be used to propagate adenoviral vectors in which these genes (typically, E1 and E3) are deleted, such as AdEasy. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • The resulting egg was implanted in the womb of a third sheep, and the result was Dolly, the first clone of a mammal. (wunc.org)
  • Finally it happens this small idea of science fiction becomes real with the first clone, Dolly the sheep, but now people are thinking that this might not be such a good idea. (essaypride.com)
  • Cloning has been all over the papers and the news lately, mostly caused by the death of possibly the world's most famous animal behind Lassie, Ian Wilmut's cloned sheep, Dolly. (essaypride.com)
  • antibodies
  • Anatomy and Development: images, fate maps, and videos Community Link --- jobs, labs which study Xenopus Protocol List- identify clones, antibodies, procedures Stock Centre- The National Xenopus Resource (maintains frog stocks, offers advanced research training) The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka on October 8, 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • The technique could potentially be used to take skin cells from a patient to create "personalised" stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Each of these treatments captures a patient's own tumor-fighting cells, grows them to high numbers in the lab, and infuses them back into the patient. (webmd.com)
  • Physicians could also extract DNA from the person who is going to receive the cellular transplant - creating a patient-specific treatment - though that would end up being far more expensive than drawing from a library of ready-made cells. (wunc.org)
  • Essay
  • Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • Many of the tumors derive from one (sufficiently) mutated cell, so they are technically a single clone of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this view of cancer onset has been challenged in recent years and many tumors have been argued to have polyclonal origin, i.e. derived from two or more cells or clones, including malignant mesothelioma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rosenberg used immune cells taken from inside patients' melanoma tumors. (webmd.com)
  • experiment
  • Furthermore, pancreatic sections from a disease transfer experiment with one of the clones showed a pronounced cellular infiltration and degranulation of islets in nondiabetic (CBA x NOD)F1 recipients. (pnas.org)
  • the original HEK 293 cell clone was from his 293rd experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethical
  • However, there remain ethical concerns over the implications of using SCNT to develop stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Dolly's birth set off a huge outpouring of ethical concern - along with hope that the same techniques, applied to human cells, could be used to treat myriad diseases. (wunc.org)
  • There are ethical concerns surrounding nuclear transfer, particularly regarding recruitment and compensation for egg donors needed for stem cell research. (empr.com)
  • Although cloning has some benefits, attempts to clone a human will bring up many moral and ethical issues. (essaypride.com)
  • These ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Genome browser BLAST Expression Search and Clone Search (search by gene symbol, gene name, or Affymetrix id) Gene nomenclature guidelines Literature search: Textpresso- uses an algorithm to match your search to specific criteria or section of a paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human embryonic kidney cells 293, also often referred to as HEK 293, HEK-293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells, are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • After presumably adapting to tissue culture, cells from this clone developed into the relatively stable HEK 293 line. (wikipedia.org)
  • A comprehensive study of the genomes and transcriptomes of HEK 293 and five derivative cell lines compared the HEK 293 transcriptome with that of human kidney, adrenal, pituitary and central nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • immature
  • Graham and coworkers provided evidence that HEK 293 cells and other human cell lines generated by adenovirus transformation of human embryonic kidney cells have many properties of immature neurons, suggesting that the adenovirus preferentially transformed a neuronal lineage cell in the original kidney culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • experimental
  • March 5, 2012 -- One of 11 patients facing death from treatment-resistant, late-stage melanoma is cancer free 3.5 years after experimental treatment with clones of his own immune cells. (webmd.com)
  • originally derived
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is a disorder of bone marrow cells resulting in shortened life of red blood cells, which is also a result of clonal expansion, i.e., all the altered cells are originally derived from a single cell, which also somewhat compromises the functioning of other "normal" bone marrow cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • attempts
  • They injected it into 77 human egg cells, and from all those attempts, managed to create two viable cells that contained DNA from one or the other man. (wunc.org)
  • Cloning Attempts to create a human being by cloning should be banned for several reasons. (essaypride.com)
  • SCNT
  • SCNT has been used to clone animals before, and is thought to have potential applications in the study and treatment of human diseases. (www.nhs.uk)
  • process
  • The process has been difficult to do with human cells. (wunc.org)
  • What we show for the first time is that you can actually take skin cells, from a middle-aged 35-year-old male, but also from an elderly, 75-year-old male" and use the DNA from those cells in this cloning process, Lanza says. (wunc.org)
  • This process (transfer of nuclei from cloned cells) is referred to as serial transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Writing in the journal Cell Stem Cell , they say they started with nuclear DNA extracted from the skin cells of a middle-age man and injected it into human eggs donated by four women. (wunc.org)
  • Cloning is based on nuclear transfer. (essaypride.com)
  • Examples of such experiments include: Effects of a drug on sodium channels Inducible RNA interference system Isoform-selective protein kinase C agonist Interaction between two proteins Nuclear export signal in a protein A more specific use of HEK 293 cells is in the propagation of adenoviral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineage
  • In addition, IL-3 stimulates proliferation of all cells in the myeloid lineage (granulocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells), in conjunction with other cytokines, e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • successful
  • This research is the first time the technique has been successful using human cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Successful treatment depended on isolating and cloning just the right kind of cancer -fighting immune cell. (webmd.com)
  • newly
  • True copy means all the attributes of the newly created Object should be the same as the Object you are cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, during course of cell division, one of the cells can get mutated further and acquire new characteristics to diverge as a new clone. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this enzyme in "youthful" cells replaces these lost bits (nucleotides) of DNA, thus making almost unlimited cycles of cell division possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, after reading this article I wanted more insight on the topic of cloning, so I researched it more in depth on the Internet. (essaypride.com)
  • However, the original adenovirus transformation was inefficient, suggesting that the cell that finally produced the HEK 293 line may have been unusual in some fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • It is used when the type of objects to create is determined by a prototypical instance, which is cloned to produce new objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • instance
  • For instance, two plasma cells belonging to the same clone could be derived from different memory cells (in turn with shared clonality) and could be residing in quite distant locations, such as the cervical (in the neck) and inguinal (in the groin) lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • this is the first instance of cloning of a vertebrate animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • And with a bit of coaxing, these cells could, theoretically, be prodded to turn into any sort of human cell - nerve, heart, liver and pancreas, for example. (wunc.org)
  • bone
  • It is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to support growth and differentiation of T cells from the bone marrow in an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Butler says that Yee's team showed that anti-tumor immune cells can survive when patients are given much less toxic chemotherapy and lower doses of the immune-boosting drugs. (webmd.com)
  • different
  • Many people have different opinions about how and when things should be cloned. (essaypride.com)
  • Most of the clones respond to islet-cell antigen from different mouse strains but only in the presence of antigen-presenting cells bearing the class II major histocompatibility complex of the NOD mouse. (pnas.org)
  • create
  • GoF, p126) The rule of thumb could be that you would need to clone() an Object when you want to create another Object at runtime that is a true copy of the Object you are cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • woman
  • Patients with diabetes may one day benefit from stem cell therapy, as research published in the journal Nature describes the first insulin-producing cells containing the DNA of a 32-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes. (empr.com)