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  • genes
  • Cloning is commonly used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes , but it can also be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters , non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. (readtiger.com)
  • phenotype
  • Occasionally, the term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning . (readtiger.com)
  • molecular
  • However, a number of other features are needed, and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein production , affinity tagging , single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. (readtiger.com)
  • years
  • Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for more than 50 thousand years. (readtiger.com)
  • process
  • The term clone , invented by J. B. S. Haldane , is derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών klōn , "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. (readtiger.com)