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  • temperature
  • A Normal is defined as the arithmetic average of a climate element (e.g. temperature) over a 30-year period. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 12 August 2009, Olive Heffernan wrote in naturenews that "Since 2002, Steve McIntyre, the editor of Climate Audit, a blog that investigates the statistical methods used in climate science, has repeatedly asked Phil Jones, director of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia, UK, for access to monthly global surface temperature data held by the institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every month in a polar climate has an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F). Regions with polar climate cover more than 20% of the Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tundra climate is characterized by having at least one month whose average temperature is above 0 °C (32 °F), while an ice cap climate has no months above 0 °C (32 °F). [ clarification needed ] In a tundra climate, trees cannot grow, but other specialized plants can grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many high altitude locations on Earth have a climate where no month has an average temperature of 10 °C (50 °F) or higher, but as this is due to elevation, this climate is referred to as Alpine climate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate sensitivity is the equilibrium temperature change in response to changes of the radiative forcing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although climate sensitivity is usually used in the context of radiative forcing by carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), it is thought of as a general property of the climate system: the change in surface air temperature (ΔT s ) following a unit change in radiative forcing (RF), and thus is expressed in units of °C/(W/m 2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The climate sensitivity specifically due to CO 2 is often expressed as the temperature change in °C associated with a doubling of the concentration of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere . (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms represented in the equation relate radiative forcing (RF) to linear changes in global surface temperature change (ΔT s ) via the climate sensitivity λ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) refers to the equilibrium change in global mean near-surface air temperature that would result from a sustained doubling of the atmospheric ( equivalent ) carbon dioxide concentration (ΔT x2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004). A measure requiring shorter integrations is the transient climate response (TCR) which is defined as the average temperature response over a twenty-year period centered at CO 2 doubling in a transient simulation with CO 2 increasing at 1% per year (compounded), i.e., 60 - 80 years following initiation of the increase in CO 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • These regions generally have more variety in temperature over the course of the year and more distinct changes between seasons compared with tropical climates, where such variations are often small. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further the IPCC concluded in their 2001 report that the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, or sea level is affected by: The inertia of the climate system, which will cause climate change to continue for a period after mitigation actions are implemented. (wikipedia.org)
  • including those climate feedback effects would give a 1-1.5°C estimated temperature increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Köppen climate classification, the alpine climate is part of "Group E", along with the polar climate, where no month has a mean temperature higher than 10 °C (50 °F). The temperature profile of the atmosphere is a result of an interaction between radiation and convection. (wikipedia.org)
  • For tropical locations, such as the summit of Mauna Loa, the temperature is roughly constant throughout the year: For mid-latitude locations, such as Mount Washington the temperature varies, but never gets very warm: Alpine plant Climate of the Alps Lugo, A. E. (1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • Results from the homogenization of instrumental western climate records indicate that detected inhomogeneities in mean temperature series occur at a frequency of roughly 15 to 20 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proxies can be combined to produce temperature reconstructions longer than the instrumental temperature record and can inform discussions of global warming and climate history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C (72 °F), while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C (72 °F). Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates (Csa, Csb) usually occur on the western sides of continents. (wikipedia.org)
  • South America
  • Southernmost South America ( Tierra del Fuego where it abuts the Drake Passage ) and such subantarctic islands such as the South Shetland Islands and the Falkland Islands have tundra climates of slight thermal range in which no month is as warm as 10 °C (50 °F). These subantarctic lowlands are found closer to the equator than the coastal tundras of the Arctic basin. (wikipedia.org)
  • These climates may occur in southern Asia, the southeastern United States, parts of eastern Australia, and in eastern coastal South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the predominant climate type across much of Western Europe, the Pacific Northwest region of the United States and Canada, portions of central Mexico, southeastern South America, southeastern Australia, including Tasmania, New Zealand as well as isolated locations elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • oceans
  • The once-forbidding route through the Arctic, linking the Pacific and the Atlantic oceans, has been opening up sooner and for a longer period each summer due to climate change. (csmonitor.com)
  • Evidence for a changing climate abounds, from the top of the atmosphere to the depths of the oceans," a draft of the report published by The New York Times reads. (csmonitor.com)
  • Over historic time spans there are a number of static variables that determine climate, including: latitude, altitude, proportion of land to water, and proximity to oceans and mountains. (mcgill.ca)
  • If a perturbation - such as an increase in greenhouse gases or solar activity - is applied to the climate system the response will not be immediate, principally because of the large heat capacity (i.e., thermal inertia) of the oceans. (wikipedia.org)
  • This relationship is only approximate, however, since local factors, such as proximity to oceans, can drastically modify the climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates ( Csa , Csb ) usually occur on the western sides of continents. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, coral bleaching can occur in a single warm season, while trees may be able to persist for decades under a changing climate, but be unable to regenerate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the severity of impact to be expected and given the likelihood that some level of important disruptions in living conditions will occur for great numbers of people due to climate change events, this group contends that there is sufficient convergence among ethical principles to make a number of concrete recommendations on how governments should act, or identify ethical problems with positions taken by certain governments, organizations, or individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • temperatures
  • A "Hothouse Earth" climate will in the long term stabilize at a global average of 4-5°C higher than pre-industrial temperatures with sea level 10-60 m higher than today, the paper says. (pik-potsdam.de)
  • Residential street trees are affected by stresses such as pests and diseases, increased temperatures, and extreme weather events that can be compounded by climate change. (usda.gov)
  • Drawdown is a goal for reversing climate change, and eventually reducing global average temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many locations featuring a hot desert climate, maximum temperatures of over 40 °C (104 °F) are not uncommon in summer and can soar to over 45 °C (113 °F) in the hottest regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proxy methods are of particular use in the study of the past climate, beyond times when direct measurements of temperatures are available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the climate system is chaotic, tiny changes in things such as temperatures, winds, and humidity in one place can lead to very different paths for the system as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • ecosystems
  • Changes in the earth's climate are having substantial effects on forest ecosystems and may reduce the ability of forests to provide important environmental benefits. (fed.us)
  • Tools to help professionals consider the potential effects of climate change on forests, and to design actions that can help ecosystems cope under changing conditions. (usda.gov)
  • The IPCC concluded, that the inertia and uncertainty of the climate system, ecosystems, and socio-economic systems implies that margins for safety should be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is framed under the assumed detrimental impacts of climate change to ecosystems and ecosystem services. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of course, climate change policy making raises additional ethical issues including questions about duties to protect future generations of humans, plants, animals, and ecosystems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • An independent organization of leading scientists and journalists researching and reporting the facts about our changing climate and its impact on the public. (climatecentral.org)
  • Our scientists publish and our journalists report on climate science, energy, sea level rise. (climatecentral.org)
  • Every four years, the nation's scientists from myriad federal agencies come together to release a comprehensive report synthesizing the current state of climate science. (csmonitor.com)
  • Though to many scientists and scholars, the pitting of climate science and religion against each other is a smokescreen, and an oversimplification. (csmonitor.com)
  • According to Antonio Regalado writing in Science Insider , Jones wrote e-mails stating that he convinced the university's FOI managers to not release data to "greenhouse skeptics" because Jones believed that they planned to harm the UAE or setback climate science by drawing scientists into disputes, wasting research time. (wikipedia.org)
  • As it happens, a group of Iowa scientists popped by the state capitol here a couple of weeks ago to talk about the effects of climate change on this state, which does not yet have any beachfront property to worry about, although we may be able to surf Ottumwa sometime in the future, if the UN panel is correct. (esquire.com)
  • Scientists use climate indices in their attempt to characterize and understand the various climate mechanisms that culminate in our daily weather. (mcgill.ca)
  • There is substantial agreement among scientists that climate engineering cannot substitute for climate change mitigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reliable global records of climate only began in the 1880s, and proxies provide the only means for scientists to determine climatic patterns before record-keeping began. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using tree rings, scientists have estimated many local climates for hundreds to thousands of years previous. (wikipedia.org)
  • IPCC
  • The IPCC Third Assessment Report ( TAR ) said it was "likely to be in the range of 1.5 to 4.5 °C". Other estimates of climate sensitivity are discussed later on. (wikipedia.org)
  • The IPCC synthesis report from 2001 (AR3) states "Inertia" means a delay, slowness, or resistance in the response of climate, biological, or human systems to factors that alter their rate of change, including continuation of change in the system after the cause of that change has been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • exacerbate
  • Negative emotional climates may exacerbate depressive symptoms and discourage personal growth, while positive emotional climates stimulate creativity, growth and professional development. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Climate indices are generally identified or devised with the twin objectives of simplicity and completeness, and each typically represents the status and timing of the climate factor it represents. (mcgill.ca)
  • Atmospheric
  • It's the most comprehensive and up to date report on climate science in the world at this point," says Katharine Hayhoe, an atmospheric scientist at Texas Tech University who was one of the authors of the report. (csmonitor.com)
  • Slow climate feedbacks , especially changes of ice sheet size and atmospheric CO 2 , amplify the total Earth system sensitivity by an amount that depends on the time scale considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other well-known modes of variability include: The Antarctic oscillation The Arctic oscillation The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation The Indian Ocean Dipole The Madden-Julian oscillation The North Atlantic oscillation The Pacific decadal oscillation The Pacific-North American teleconnection pattern The Quasi-biennial oscillation Atmospheric anomaly Climate change Climate model Global warming Teleconnection 100,000-year climate pattern linked to sun's magnetic cycles, according to a new analysis "climate science_glossary" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Change Adaptation
  • In actuality, there is still a great deal of abstract discussion and debate regarding a number of subtle nuances associated with the precise definition of the climate resilience perspective, such as its relation to climate change adaptation, the extent to which it should encompass actor-based versus systems-based approaches to improving stability, and its relationship with the balance of nature theory or homeostatic equilibrium view of ecological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coastal
  • All but a few isolated coastal areas on the island of Greenland also have the ice cap climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coastal regions of Greenland that do not have permanent ice sheets have the less extreme tundra climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of this climate include parts of coastal Iceland in the Northern Hemisphere and extreme southern Chile and Argentina in the Southern Hemisphere (examples include Ushuaia and Punta Arenas). (wikipedia.org)
  • transient
  • It also explains the very large difference in response between "equilibrium" climate prediction runs in which only a shallow ocean is used and it is assumed that the climate has come to equilibrium and "transient" climate prediction runs in which a full ocean is used and the climate is out of balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • ecological
  • Climate inertia describes the widespread inherent characteristic of the climate, ecological, and socio-economic systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate resilience can be generally defined as the capacity for a socio-ecological system to: (1) absorb stresses and maintain function in the face of external stresses imposed upon it by climate change and (2) adapt, reorganize, and evolve into more desirable configurations that improve the sustainability of the system, leaving it better prepared for future climate change impacts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the majority of work regarding climate resilience has been centered around examining the capacity for social-ecological systems to sustain shocks and maintain the integrity of functional relationships in the face of external forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there is a growing consensus in academic literature which argues that greater attention needs to be focused on investigating the other critical aspect of climate resilience, which is the capacity for social-ecological systems to renew and develop, and to utilize disturbances as opportunities for innovation and evolution of new pathways that improve the system's ability to adapt to macroscopic changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for the purposes of differentiating climate adaptation and climate resilience from a policymaking standpoint, we can contrast the active, actor-centric notion of adaptation with resilience, which would be a more systems-based approach to building social-ecological networks that are inherently capable of not only absorbing change, but utilizing those changes to develop into more efficient configurations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Terms such as climate justice and ecological justice ('eco justice') are used worldwide, and have been adopted by various groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paris Climate Agreement
  • Through our ground breaking OneNYC strategy and our ambitious 1.5˚C Plan, we've committed our city to hit the highest goals of the Paris climate agreement. (climateweeknyc.org)
  • McCarthy signed the Clean Power Plan, which set the first-ever national standards for reducing carbon emissions from existing power plants, underscoring the country's commitment to domestic climate action and spurring international efforts that helped secure the Paris Climate Agreement. (climateleadersprogram.com)
  • On the 1 Year Anniversary of Trump Pulling Out of the Paris Climate Agreement Environmental Justice Groups Launch the It Takes Roots Action Camp: From Roots to Resilience . (ourpowercampaign.org)
  • Paris Climate Agreement: A Deal for Better Compliance? (springer.com)
  • widely
  • In one e-mail cited widely on blogs including Climate Audit, Phil Jones writes about completing "Mike's nature trick of adding in the real temps" in order to hide the decline. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this climate classification only covers a small portion of the Earth's surface, alpine climates are widely distributed. (wikipedia.org)
  • global
  • Global political leaders take the stage at the Opening Ceremony of Climate Week NYC on Monday September 24, including Rt Hon Jacinda Arden, Prime Minister, New Zealand, President Jovenel Moïse, Republic of Haiti, and California Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. (climateweeknyc.org)
  • The Climate Group's mission is to accelerate climate action to achieve a world of under 2°C of global warming. (climateweeknyc.org)
  • NASA's Global Climate Change website hosts an extensive collection of global warming resources for media, educators, weathercasters and public speakers. (nasa.gov)
  • But once it became an issue of global climate change, Ms. Vox notes that evangelists like the bestselling author Hal Lindsey denounced climate science as a scam "being used to to consolidate the governments of the world into a coalition that may someday facilitate the rise of the Antichrist. (csmonitor.com)
  • Therefore, the appearance of cold surface water in the east equatorial pacific around 3 million years ago may have contributed to global cooling and modified global climate response to Milankovitch cycles . (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate justice is a term used for framing global warming as an ethical and political issue, rather than one that is purely environmental or physical in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • was founded, and, in 2008, the Global Humanitarian Forum focused on climate justice at its inaugural meeting in Geneva . (wikipedia.org)
  • For coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • By their very nature, indices are simple, and combine many details into a generalized, overall description of the atmosphere or ocean which can be used to characterize the factors which impact the global climate system. (mcgill.ca)
  • While hosting a global warming symposium sponsored by The Commonwealth Club of California with academic experts and journalists around the Arctic Circle, Dalton decided to form Climate One, a branch of the Club that focuses on sustainability measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is accounted for in global climate models, and has been confirmed via measurements of Earth's energy balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate commitment studies attempt to assess the amount of future global warming that is "committed" under the assumption of some constant level of forcings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their scalability to effectively affect global climate is, however, debated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most experts and major reports advise against relying on climate engineering techniques as a simple solution to global warming, in part due to the large uncertainties over effectiveness and side effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate Challenge is a Flash-based global warming game produced by the BBC and developed by Red Redemption. (wikipedia.org)
  • If all inhomogeneities would be purely random perturbations of the climate records, collectively their effect on the mean global climate signal would be negligible. (wikipedia.org)
  • From local community action to global treaties, addressing climate resilience is becoming a priority, although it could be argued that a significant amount of the theory has yet to be translated into practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate ethics is an area of research that focuses on the ethical dimensions of climate change (also known as global warming), and concepts such as climate justice. (wikipedia.org)
  • factors
  • The ability of populations to mitigate and adapt to the negative consequences of climate change are shaped by factors such as income, race, class, gender, capital and political representation. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a couple factors why the climate of large city landscapes differs from the climate of rural areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors have led to the average climate of cities to be warmer than surrounding areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate commitment describes the fact that climate reacts with a delay to influencing factors ("climate forcings") such as the presence of greenhouse gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research by Davide Morselli shows that emotional climates of relative large communities (regions, cantons) are tangled with other socioeconomic factors, such as the wealth and unemployment rate, and influence individual emotional response to life events. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snowfall
  • Uplift of the Rocky mountains and Greenland west coast may have cooled the climate due to jet stream deflection and increased snowfall due to higher surface elevation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some areas with this climate see some snowfall annually during winter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adaptation
  • This interdisciplinary program provides the latest publications on monitoring, modeling, risk analysis, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, and is intended for academic researchers and professional organizations, as well as governmental bodies. (springer.com)
  • Climate engineering approaches are sometimes viewed as additional potential options for limiting climate change or its impacts, alongside mitigation and adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact that climate resilience encompasses a dual function, to absorb shock as well as to self-renew, is the primary means by which it can be differentiated from the concept of climate adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the specific case of environmental change and climate adaptation, it is argued by many that adaptation should be defined strictly as encompassing only active decision-making processes and actions - in other words, deliberate changes made in response to climate change. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the Pliocene the earth climate system response shifted from a period of high frequency-low amplitude oscillation dominated by the 41,000-year period of Earth's obliquity to one of low-frequency, high-amplitude oscillation dominated by the 100,000-year period of the orbital eccentricity characteristic of the Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Melting ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica take time to respond to the emissions of fossil fuel carbon in the climate system. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the Holdridge life zone system, alpine climate occurs when the mean biotemperature of a location is between 1.5 and 3 °C (34.7 and 37.4 °F), which prevents tree growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A climate ensemble involves slightly different models of the climate system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current climate state and evidence from the past of the climate system are important in determining the future evolution of climatic anomalies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dansgaard-Oeschger events are considered switches between states of the climate system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tipping points in the climate system describe thresholds, such as ice-albedo feedback which can cause abrupt climate change, and possibly leading to a new state. (wikipedia.org)
  • organizational
  • Organizational climate (sometimes known as Corporate Climate) is the process of quantifying the "culture" of an organization, and it precedes the notion of organizational culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organizational climate, on the other hand, is often defined as the recurring patterns of behavior, attitudes and feelings that characterize life in the organization, while an organization culture tends to be deep and stable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers have pursued the shared perception model of organizational climate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of emotional climate was first used in educational psychology to define the effects of classroom climates on learning, and extensively used in organizational psychology to capture differences in organizational environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • disasters
  • These states have suffered the most billion-dollar weather and climate disasters since 1980. (climatecentral.org)
  • According to one study, Hurricane Katrina provided insights into how climate change disasters affect different people differently, as it had a disproportionate effect on low-income and minority groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • tend
  • While the former often tend to blame the exesses of neoliberalism for climate change and argue in favor of market-based reform, the latter view capitalism with its exploitative traits as the underlying central issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • observations
  • Since direct observations of climate are not available before the 19th century, paleoclimates are inferred from proxy variables that include non-biotic evidence such as sediments found in lake beds and ice cores , and biotic evidence such as tree rings and coral. (wikipedia.org)
  • variability
  • Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather," or more rigorously, as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period ranging from months to thousands or millions of years. (wikipedia.org)
  • To study climate change and variability long instrumental climate records are essential, but are best not used directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • These datasets are essential since they are the basis for assessing century-scale trends or for studying the natural (long-term) variability of climate, amongst others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many modes of variability are used by climatologists as indices to represent the general climatic state of a region affected by a given climate pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measured via an empirical orthogonal function analysis, the mode of variability with the greatest effect on climates worldwide is the seasonal cycle, followed by El Niño-Southern Oscillation, followed by thermohaline circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resilience
  • With the rising awareness of climate change impacts by both national and international bodies, building climate resilience has become a major goal for these institutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, climate resilience efforts encompass social, economic, technological, and political strategies that are being implemented at all scales of society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite this, there is a robust and ever-growing movement fueled by local and national bodies alike geared towards building and improving climate resilience. (wikipedia.org)
  • A conversation about climate resilience is incomplete without also incorporating the concepts of adaptations, vulnerability, and climate change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate resilience is a relatively novel concept that is still in the process of being established by academia and policymaking institutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the theoretical basis for many of the ideas central to climate resilience have actually existed since the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • describes
  • Climate differs from weather, in that weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a given region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate state describes a state of climate on Earth and similar terrestrial planets based on a thermal energy budget, such as the greenhouse or icehouse climate state. (wikipedia.org)