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  • cytoplasm
  • Our results indicate that developmental arrest may result from a combination of (1) failure to re-activate genes that normally become repressed between the 2-cell and 8-cell stages and (2) failure to up-regulate genes that become repressed during reprogramming of the 8-cell nucleus by the 1-cell cytoplasm. (jax.org)
  • for example in oogenesis in animals the ovum takes almost all the cytoplasm and organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • develops
  • In female animals, three of the four meiotic products are typically eliminated by extrusion into polar bodies, and only one cell develops to produce an ovum. (wikipedia.org)
  • In deuterostomes, the mouth develops at a later stage, at the opposite end of the blastula from the blastopore, and a gut forms connecting the two. (wikipedia.org)
  • furrow
  • However, the early formation of the blastocoel has been traced back to the very first cleavage furrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was demonstrated in the frog embryo that the first cleavage furrow widens in the animal hemisphere creating a small intercellular cavity that is sealed off via tight junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • These results are the first to reveal significant biochemical alterations that accompany the morphological and cytological differences previously described and indicate that the 8-cell stage nucleus is unable to completely recapitulate the normal progression of changes in protein synthesis pattern that occur during the 2-cell stage. (jax.org)
  • The nucleus of the mature ovum becomes the female pronucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • divides
  • The fertilized egg divides by spiral cleavage and grows by determinate development, in which the fate of a cell can usually be predicted from its predecessors in the process of division. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • The ovum only carries the X female sex chromosome whilst the sperm carries a single sex chromosome of either an X or a male Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Y chromosome contains a gene, SRY, which will switch on androgen production at a later stage, leading to the development of a male body type. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the next stage of cleavage one paternal X chromosome is eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the fertilized daughter, DNA is then replicated in the two separate pronuclei derived from the sperm and ovum, making the zygote's chromosome number temporarily 4n diploid. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • in humans, the stage approximately from attachment of the fertilized egg to the uterine wall until about the eighth week of pregnancy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, accidental infection in humans by the larval stage causes cysticercosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans are infected by the larval stage, the cysticercus, from measly pork. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • Some species eject unfertilized ova into the water, while others keep their ova in brood chambers until they hatch, and some of these species use placenta-like organs to nourish the developing eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • larval
  • Eucestoda ontogenesis continues through metamorphosing in different larval stages inside different hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear
  • This may partially account for the need to delay the widespread activation of zygotic gene transcription until the 2-cell stage, when much of the nuclear remodeling that occurs postfertilization is complete. (jax.org)
  • gastrula
  • It can be described as the first cell cavity formed as the embryo enlarges, the essential precursor for the differentiated, topologically distinct, gastrula An amphibian embryo in the 128- cell stage is considered a blastula as the blastocoel in the embryo becomes apparent during this stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spermatozoa
  • Supernumerary spermatozoa were occasionally noted attached to the zonae pellucidae of oviductal ova, but never within the perivitelline space. (edu.au)
  • The smaller, motile gametes are spermatozoa and the larger, non-motile gametes are ova. (wikipedia.org)
  • Female
  • In a majority of Turkey's female abuse cases, the perpetrators receive mitigations in their sentences due to court's detection of consent granted by the victim, in some cases, wearing a miniskirt or some cleavage got the woman's rapist mitigation in his punishment, while in some cases the consent was attached to her wearing red. (definitions.net)
  • Female animals employ a slight variation on this pattern and produce one large ovum and two small polar bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although those of many marine species function first as males and then as females, their colonies always contain a combination of zooids that are in their male and female stages. (wikipedia.org)