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  • substrate
  • Pathways are required for the maintenance of homeostasis within an organism and the flux of metabolites through a pathway is regulated depending on the needs of the cell and the availability of the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that conformational change of this loop region from the open conformation to the closed conformation after binding of substrate enhances MDH catalysis through shielding of substrate and catalytic amino acids from solvent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the Arginine residues on the enzyme provide additional substrate specificity and binding through hydrogen bonding between the guanidinium side chain of the Arginine amino acid residues and the carboxylates of the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loop undergoes a conformational change to shield the substrate and catalytic amino acids from the solvent in response to the binding of the malate dehydrogenase:coenzyme complex to substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • novo fatty aci
  • NADPH generated through the pentose-phosphate pathway is required for NADPH oxidase activity and H 2 O 2 production and also for de novo fatty acid synthesis (5,6). (scielo.br)
  • molecule
  • Practice: What is the starting molecule for the citric acid cycle? (clutchprep.com)
  • It does this by adding a non-chiral (structurally identical) mirror image of the starting molecule then when the cycle is completed it breaks in half resulting in two identical copies. (antievolution.org)
  • At any stage through the assembly cycle a molecule of proper fit may be drawn by molecular forces into a nearby self-assembly interaction to where it fits. (antievolution.org)
  • Another glucose-derived metabolite, glycerol-3-phosphate ( Figure 1 ), is the backbone of the main lipid storage molecule, triacylglycerol, or phospholipids (which are important components of cell membranes). (scielo.br)
  • In living organisms, succinic acid takes the form of an anion, succinate, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. (wikipedia.org)
  • pyruvate
  • Diagrammatic representation of the citric acid cycle and the abnormalities found in pyruvate carboxylase deficiency (PCD). (medscape.com)
  • PDK1 shunts pyruvate away from the citric acid cycle and keeps the hypoxic cell alive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to low glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities, in tumor cells the conversion of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate mainly takes place via glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much like pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), this enzyme forms a complex composed of three components: Three classes of these multienzyme complexes have been characterized: one specific for pyruvate, a second specific for 2-oxoglutarate, and a third specific for branched-chain α-keto acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex has the same subunit structure and thus uses the same coenzymes as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (TTP, CoA, lipoate, FAD and NAD). (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acid residues
  • Studies have revealed that the active site is composed of amino acid residues from three of the four subunits within the tetrameric enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary binding site on fumarase is known as catalytic site A. Studies have revealed that catalytic site A is composed of amino acid residues from three of the four subunits within the tetrameric enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • Metabolism of rat-liver cell suspensions. (biochemj.org)
  • The citric acid cycle is a key metabolic pathway that connects carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Accumulation of a Product of Cell Metabolism Found to Be Linked with Kidney Tumour Growth Researchers funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC) have shown that when the metabolite fumarate accumulates in a hereditary form of renal cancer it leads to an epigenetic reprogramming that drives cancer, according to a study published in Natureopens in new window. (issuu.com)
  • The specialized aspects of glutamine/glutamate metabolism of different glutamine-utilizing cells are discussed in the context of glucose requirements and cell function. (scielo.br)
  • Carbon dioxide may be the major end-product of glucose metabolism in many cells but lactate or alanine may also be major end-products in conditions of low oxygen tension or alternative cellular requirements. (scielo.br)
  • State Cellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions inside a cell that maintain life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elaborate Cellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions representing the flow of matter and energy through the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exemplify The citric acid cycle is a part of cellular metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • fumaric acid
  • Several of the components and reactions of the citric acid cycle were established in the 1830s by the research of Albert Szent-Györgyi , who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937 specifically for his discoveries pertaining to fumaric acid , a key component of the cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinic acid can be oxidized to fumaric acid or be converted to diesters, such as diethylsuccinate (CH2CO2CH2CH3)2. (wikipedia.org)
  • sialic acid
  • It reacts with N-acetyl mannosamine by an aldol-type condensation to prepare sialic acid. (alfa.com)
  • For example, carbohydrates often display chemical groups such as: N-acetyl (e.g. chitin), sulphate (e.g. glycosaminoglycans), carboxylic acid (e.g. sialic acid) and deoxy modifications (e.g. fucose and sialic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • Ribose-5-phosphate produced in the same pathway is used for nucleotides and nucleic acid synthesis (7). (scielo.br)
  • Tissues
  • Inside the cells glucose can be converted into glucose-6-phosphate by hexokinase (in most tissues) or glucokinase (in the liver and pancreatic islets) (4). (scielo.br)
  • PDK2 is present in most tissues but low in spleen and lung cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues - A collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Without myoadenlyate deaminase, heavy activity causes adenosine to be released into the cell or perfused into the surrounding tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells in a process known as myogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Energy
  • It usually acts as an intermediately product during the citric acid cycle, which the cells use to produce energy. (issuu.com)
  • which of the following molecules has the least potential energy that can be used by a cell? (brainscape.com)
  • This cycle produces, stores, and releases cellular energy. (herbalist.com)
  • PC deficiency results in malfunction of the citric acid cycle and of gluconeogenesis (as seen in the diagram below), thereby depriving the body of energy. (medscape.com)
  • Cellular respiration - The metabolic reactions and processes that take place in a cell or across the cell membrane to convert biochemical energy from fuel molecules into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and then release the cell's waste products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acetoacetyl-CoA can then be converted by acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase into acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle to generate energy for the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, OXCT1 allows cells to utilize energy stored in ketone bodies synthesized by the liver during conditions of energy deficiency, such as low glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since OXCT1 functions in metabolizing ketone bodies, it has been proposed to promote tumor growth by providing tumor cells with an additional energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • GTP is involved in energy transfer within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • AMP is normally converted into IMP by myoadenylate deaminase-so myoadenylate deaminase deficiency reduces energy that would be available to the cell through the purine nucleotide cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the plasma and an additional energy source in tumor cells especially when glycolytic energy production is low due to a high amount of the dimeric form of M2-PK. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high energy charge in the cell will also be inhibitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • As a diprotic acid, succinic acid undergoes two successive deprotonation reactions: (CH2)2(CO2H)2 → (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− + H+ (CH2)2(CO2H)(CO2)− → (CH2)2(CO2)22− + H+ The pKa of these processes are 4.3 and 5.6, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • These chemical reactions maintain homeostasis, allow growth, and keep a relatively constant level of entropy in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitochondrial
  • For instance, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the amino acid sequences, it seems that MDH has diverged into two main phylogenetic groups that closely resemble either mitochondrial isozymes or cytoplasmic/chloroplast isozymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that the temporary inhibition of mitochondrial function stems from the reversible glutathionylation of the E2-lipoac acid domain of Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • We propose that, in addition to glucose, the 5-carbon amino acids glutamine and glutamate should be considered to be equally important for maintenance and promotion of cell function. (scielo.br)
  • It has been discussed that the glutamate pool may drive the endergonic uptake of other amino acids by system ASC. (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediate
  • SDHB acts as an intermediate in the basic SDH enzyme action shown in Figure 1: SDHA converts succinate to fumarate as part of the Citric Acid Cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, more recent trials have provided evidence that the mechanism actually takes place through an acid-base catalyzed elimination by means of a carbanionic intermediate E1CB elimination (Figure 2). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • This amino acid is a precursor of neurotransmitters and other essential molecules, being indispensable for cell proliferation, immune function and for acid-base balance. (scielo.br)
  • The carbon dioxide molecules migrate from the erythrocytes in the capillaries through the porous membrane into the air in the alveoli, while the oxygen molecules cross from the air into the red blood cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Puzzarini, C. CC/DFT Route toward Accurate Structures and Spectroscopic Features for Observed and Elusive Conformers of Flexible Molecules: Pyruvic Acid as a Case Study. (alfa.com)
  • inhibition
  • Therefore, PDK1 inhibition has been suggested as an antitumor therapy since PDK1 prevents apoptosis in these cancerous cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Less frequently, renal cell carcinoma can be caused by this mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRC) is a rare form of cancer that results in skin tumours and can lead to kidney cancer. (issuu.com)
  • Mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of leiomyomas in the skin and uterus in combination with renal cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • It is believed that components of the citric acid cycle were derived from anaerobic bacteria , and that the TCA cycle itself may have evolved more than once. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology research extends to both the great diversities of single-celled organisms like bacteria and the complex specialized cells in multicellular organisms like humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • Endosymbiotic theory - The evolutionary theory that certain eukaryotic organelles originated as separate prokaryotic organisms which were taken inside the cell as endosymbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The expressed protein weighs 31.6 kDa and is composed of 280 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the second copy mutates in a certain cell due to a random event, Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) occurs and the SDHB protein is no longer produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the fundamental nature of the SDH protein in all cellular function, it is not currently understood why only paraganglionic cells are affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • enters
  • Through catabolism of sugars, fats, and proteins, the two-carbon organic product acetyl-CoA (a form of acetate) is produced which enters the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Practice: The citric acid cycle requires oxygen indirectly, because oxygen is necessary for what to occur? (clutchprep.com)
  • 1. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells, including inhalation and exhalation , diffusion of oxygen from the pulmonary alveoli to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli, followed by the transport of oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The erythrocytes proceed through the circulatory system, carrying the oxygen in loose combination with hemoglobin and giving it up to the body cells that need it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the sensitivity of these cells to oxygen levels may play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Bezielle is selectively cytotoxic to most of twelve breast cancer cell lines examined as well as to a number of cancer cell lines of different tissue origins such as prostate, lung, colon, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Succinic acid also serves as the bases of certain biodegradable polymers, which are of interest in tissue engineering applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulose in the cell wall of all plant tissue is a carbohydrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • HepG2
  • IF analysis of (10% Formaldehyde ) fixed HepG2 cells using MFF antibody at dilution of 1:100 and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated AffiniPure Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG(H+L) (green). (ptglab.com)
  • Interestingly, a proteomics study identified OXCT1 to be one of 16 proteins upregulated in carcinoma HepG2 cells treated with Platycodin D, an anti-cancer agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Join thousands of students and gain free access to 23 hours of Cell Biology videos that follow the topics your textbook covers. (clutchprep.com)
  • Cell biology can be described as all of the following: Branch of science - A systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell biology - (formerly cytology) The study of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular differentiation - A concept in developmental biology whereby less specialized cells become a more specialized cell type in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)