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  • Biochemistry
  • This is the time of the year when I challenge the students in my introductory biochemistry class to find one single website that correctly shows the reactions of the citric acid cycle with all the correct substrates and products (including water and protons). (blogspot.com)
  • FADH
  • The reactions of the cycle also convert three equivalents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) into three equivalents of reduced NAD + (NADH), one equivalent of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) into one equivalent of FADH 2 , and one equivalent each of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (P i ) into one equivalent of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • FADH 2 is covalently attached to succinate dehydrogenase, an enzyme functioning both in the TCA cycle and the mitochondrial electron transfer chain in oxidative phosphorylation. (chemeurope.com)
  • precursors
  • In addition to serving as the primary pathway in oxidative metabolism for the degradation of nutrient molecules, ultimately to give rise to ATP through electron transport, the citric acid cycle is a major source of precursors for the synthesis of biological molecules. (wikipremed.com)
  • lipoic acid
  • The catalytic cofactor includes coenzymes such as thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), lipoic acid, and FAD. (wikibooks.org)
  • Simultaneously, the hydroxyethyl group is transferred to lipoamide which is lipoic acid derived that links to the side chain of a lysine residue by an amide linkage. (wikibooks.org)
  • A deficiency of one of the B vitamins is most common, but a lack of magnesium, manganese, lipoic acid, iron, Co Q 10, copper, or phosphorus can impair CAC function, resulting in low energy. (drlongstreth.com)