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  • amino acids
  • In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids, as well as the reducing agent NADH , that are used in numerous other reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric acid also slows the oxidation process that causes fats to turn rancid and proteins to deteriorate, which inhibits spoilage of foods and other products that contain fats, proteins and amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • The PDHB gene encodes a precursor protein that has 359 amino acid residues and a final mature protein that has 329 amino acids, and is part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preliminary peptide encoded by this gene was 29 amino acids at the very start of the sequence that correspond to a typical mitochondrial targeting leader sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The remaining 361 amino acids, starting at the N terminus with phenylalanine, represent the mature mitochondrial E1 alpha peptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Krebs
  • The citric acid cycle itself was finally identified in 1937 by Hans Adolf Krebs and William Arthur Johnson while at the University of Sheffield , for which the former received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1953, and for whom the cycle is sometimes named (Krebs cycle). (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinton Community College explains that pyruvate is converted into acetyl coenzyme A before entering the citric acid, or Krebs, cycle. (reference.com)
  • apples
  • In addition to keeping food poisoning at bay, citric acid also prevents fruits, such as apples and pears, from turning brown in the jars. (gardenguides.com)
  • Unfortunately, when apple slices are exposed to air, they quickly turn an unappetizing shade of brown and lose valuable vitamin C. Several solutions, including those made with citric acid, help you preserve and enjoy cut apples. (livestrong.com)
  • pyruvic acid
  • A complex series of reactions following glycolysis in aerobic respiration that convert pyruvic acid into hydrogen , carbon dioxide and electron s. (everything2.com)
  • Other names in common use include MtPDC (mitochondrial pyruvate dehydogenase complex), pyruvate decarboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide), pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, pyruvate:lipoamide 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating and, acceptor-acetylating), pyruvic acid dehydrogenase, and pyruvic dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vinegar
  • In the fiber art world, it is used as an alternative to vinegar or acetic acid 56% when dyeing protein fibers such as silk or wool. (dharmatrading.com)
  • I don't know why it took me so long to switch from using vinegar to using citric acid for my yarn dyeing but I'm so glad I did. (dharmatrading.com)
  • Using citric acid is so much cheaper than vinegar and also eliminates that awful vinegar smell. (dharmatrading.com)
  • pharmaceutical
  • In 1917, American food chemist James Currie discovered certain strains of the mold Aspergillus niger could be efficient citric acid producers, and the pharmaceutical company Pfizer began industrial-level production using this technique two years later, followed by Citrique Belge in 1929. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmaceutical use of citric acid reduces the toxins manufactured and ingested. (livestrong.com)
  • bases
  • Brambleberry.com offers citric acid in three sizes: 1 pound, 10 pounds and 50 pounds, and it also sells additives, bases and oils. (reference.com)
  • cleaners
  • How strong is the hydrochloric acid in toilet bowl cleaners? (reference.com)
  • Hydrochloric acid used in toilet bowl cleaners comes in a variety of strengths ranging from a low of seven percent up to a maximum of 40 percent, depending. (reference.com)
  • products
  • Citric acid is an alpha hydroxy acid used in personal care products to adjust the acidity or promote skin peeling and re-growth in the case of anti-aging products. (ewg.org)
  • Because of its high solubility, citric acid is preferred in its anhydrous crystal form by the food industry, where it is widely used to add acidity to products. (reference.com)
  • These products work well, but are more expensive than using citric acid alone. (livestrong.com)