• A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and cinchonidine) and their total content. (frontiersin.org)
  • Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species of these compounds under natural conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The medicinal value of Cinchona bark was first discovered in Loxa (now Loja, Ecuador) in the seventeenth century by Jesuit monks, and soon exports of different varieties of Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red bark) from South America to Europe were reaching half a million kilograms bark per year ( Roersch van der Hoogte and Pieters, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. (frontiersin.org)
  • A clade of high alkaloid producing trees was identified that spanned a narrow range of altitudes, from 1,100 to 1,350 m. (frontiersin.org)
  • Import could not meet demand, and a quest began for the most productive source of Cinchona trees to establish plantations by the British, Dutch, and French empires. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some members secrete mucilage from thick glandular hairs (colleters) at the base of the leaf stalk or on the adjacent stipules, and many produce iridoid compounds , cardiotonic glycosides, or indole alkaloids to deter herbivores. (britannica.com)
  • A clade of high alkaloid producing trees was identified that spanned a narrow range of altitudes, from 1,100 to 1,350 m. (frontiersin.org)
  • Gentianales belongs to the core asterid clade (organisms with a single common ancestor), or sympetalous lineage of flowering plants, in the lamiids clade of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV (APG IV) botanical classification system ( see angiosperm ). (britannica.com)
  • Biochemically, they lack alkaloids, but they produce iridoid compounds and xanthones. (britannica.com)
  • The medicinal value of Cinchona bark was first discovered in Loxa (now Loja, Ecuador) in the seventeenth century by Jesuit monks, and soon exports of different varieties of Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red bark) from South America to Europe were reaching half a million kilograms bark per year ( Roersch van der Hoogte and Pieters, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Traditional medicine uses from South America known as Jesuit's bark and Jesuit's powder have been traced to Cinchona. (wikipedia.org)
  • The febrifugal properties of bark from trees now known to be in the genus Cinchona were used by many South American cultures prior to European contact, but malaria is an Old World disease that was introduced into the Americas by Europeans only after 1492. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bark of this tree is said to be a bitter tonic and a good anti-malarial like cinchona. (ijpjournal.com)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of an aqueous extract of Cinchona officinalis (C. officinalis) in experimental animal models. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The Portuguese government aware of the problem searched an alternative in cinchona varieties existing in Brazil. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The use of these barks in medicines against "fevers" in Europe in the 17th century made the exploitation of cinchonas of Peru a highly productive process, and those cinchona trees became menaced. (worldwidescience.org)
  • the national tree of Peru is in the genus Cinchona. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article reviews the applications of cinchona alkaloids as asymmetric catalysts. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Since a relative short period (about 50 years) chemist have also used these alkaloids as chiral catalyst for a wide variety of asymmetric transformations. (worldwidescience.org)
  • 2.3 Asymmetric phase transfer catalysed alkylation of glycine imines using cinchona alkaloid derived quaternary ammonium salts (Barry Lygo and Benjamin I. Andrews). (nhbs.com)
  • Import could not meet demand, and a quest began for the most productive source of Cinchona trees to establish plantations by the British, Dutch, and French empires. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent research on plant phylogeny coupled with metabolomics, which is the comprehensive analysis of metabolite profiles, has identified that related taxa produce similar secondary metabolites, although correlations are dependent also on environmental factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chapter 7 describes the development of an effective grinding device for the grinding of herbal samples such as Cinchona barks. (worldwidescience.org)
  • However, climate expressed by altitude was not a significant driver when accounting for phylogeny, suggesting that the chemical diversity is primarily driven by phylogeny. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cytotoxic effects also have been observed in assays with alkaloids (taspine) and with secokaurene, labdane and cembranoid diterpenes. (scielo.br)
  • Using Cinchona calisaya as a model, we generated genetic profiles of leaf samples from four plastid (trnL-F, matK, rps16, and ndhF) and one nuclear (ITS) DNA regions from twenty-two C. calisaya stands sampled in the Yungas region of Bolivia. (frontiersin.org)
  • The alkaloid galantamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor extracted from the bulbs, has been reported as helpful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. (ox.ac.uk)