• The bark and other parts of the cinchona tree contain quinine, cinchonine, and other alkaloids that have antimalarial, tonic, and antiseptic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • chĭngkō`nə) , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder, common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and herbs, especially abundant in N South America. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. is commonly known as Crown bark in English belongs to family Rubiaceae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro germination and shoot proliferation of the threatened species Cinchona officinalis L (Rubiaceae). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cinchona officinalis (Rubiaceae) is an endemic species of the Loja Valley in southern Ecuador with medicinal uses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The trees are now cultivated elsewhere for "Peruvian bark," the source of quinine quinine , white crystalline alkaloid with a bitter taste. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. (frontiersin.org)
  • Part XI: The Cinchona alkaloids in the treatment of benign tertian malaria. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • Evaluating Cinchona bark and quinine for treating and preventing malaria. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • The dried bark of Cinchona succirubra Pavon (Fam. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • U. S. "Red Cinchona Bark is the dried bark of the stem and branches of cultivated plants of Cinchona succirubra, Pav. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The bank was established in the year Cinchona alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra and Cinchona ledgeriana. (center-dl.ru)
  • Bis-(cinchona alkaloid) ligands (which are generally the better catalysts) catalyze the formation of diols of high enantiopurity from a very broad range of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and cinchonidine) and their total content. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cinchonidine sulphate, (C 19 H 22 N 2 O) 2 ,H 2 SO 4 ,3H 2 O, is the salt of a base found in cinchona bark. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • Quinine, an alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree was brought to Europe from Peru in the 17th century. (center-dl.ru)
  • When the bark of the Cinchona tree is peeled back or chipped off, a bitter red liquid seeps out. (medicinal-foods.com)
  • Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have proven to catalyze an astonishing array of enantioselective transformations, providing access to chiral products of high enantiopurity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In connection with our ongoing project that deals with the catalytic potential of the cinchona-alkaloid-derived amides,[17-19] we became interested in examining the reaction of allenoates with imines in the presence of a chiral tertiary amine catalyst. (docme.ru)
  • The medicinal value of Cinchona bark was first discovered in Loxa (now Loja, Ecuador) in the seventeenth century by Jesuit monks, and soon exports of different varieties of Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red bark) from South America to Europe were reaching half a million kilograms bark per year ( Roersch van der Hoogte and Pieters, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In an attempt to further improve catalyst enantioselectivities, Jew and Park linked two cinchona alkaloid moieties via spacer units. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In particular, the cinchona alkaloids catalyze many useful processes with high enantioselectivities. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mid 19th century - Seeds of Cinchona calisaya and Cinchona pubescens were smuggled out by the British and the Dutch. (center-dl.ru)
  • aromatized with cinchona calisaya bark, rhubarb and gentian root and the precious cardamom seed whose active principles are extracted with a slow maceration at room temperature. (center-dl.ru)
  • Climatic and soil parameters were characterized and bark samples were analyzed for content of the four major alkaloids using HPLC-UV to explore the utility of evolutionary history (phylogeny) in determining variation within species of these compounds under natural conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The dried bark of Cinchona Ledgeriana Moens, Cinchona Calisaya Weddell, and of hybrids of these with other species of Cinchona (Fam. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • At the present time (1917) thirty or forty more or less clearly defined species of Cinchona are recognized. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The bark of any species of Cinchona (Ru- biaceæ) containing at least three per cent of its peculiar alkaloids. (center-dl.ru)
  • For example hybrids of cinchona ledgeriana Moens and cinchona calisaya pavon produce a higher yield of alkaloids than either of the parent species. (center-dl.ru)
  • The preferred source for quinine is Cinchona ledgeriana, whereas a more equally distributed mixture of alkaloids comes from Cinchona calisaya.Traditionally the alkaloids are isolated by the extraction and sequential precipitation (Scheme 2).First, the Cinchona bark is extracted under basic conditions (CaO, NaOH) to an organic aromatic solvent (e.g., toluene) at elevated temperatures. (center-dl.ru)
  • Of all of these probably but four with their cultivated hybrids yield the Cinchona Bark of commerce. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The literature of the cinchona hybrids is hopelessly confused by the same name being frequently used by different authorities for the different hybrids and the one hybrid having various names. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • Cinchona is used in eye lotions to numb pain, kill germs, and as an astringent. (center-dl.ru)
  • Cinchona alkaloids can be used as bases to deprotonate substrates with relatively acidic protons forming a contact ion pair between the resulting anion and protonated amine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • cultivation of cinchona trees gives an opportunity to select seeds from plants yielding high-quality bark, and also to hybridize one choice strain with another. (center-dl.ru)
  • Cinchona is classified in the division Magnoliophyta Magnoliophyta , division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cinchona calisaya information from ITIS The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Cinchona calisaya, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world. (center-dl.ru)
  • In the early 1800s, Peru, together with other South American countries, outlawed the export of Cinchona seeds and plants in order to maintain their monopoly on the tree bark. (center-dl.ru)
  • Cinchona calisaya, with a total alkaloid content up to 6.5% of which around 80% is quinine (Rusby, 1931), provided the most readily available bioactive alkaloid with barks in reliable supply, and the form extracted and administered with most ease (Achan et al. (center-dl.ru)
  • Calisaya (liqueur) is a herbal liqueur produced by infusing cinchona calisaya, and other barks, roots and flowers in grain neutral spirit and seville orange extract. (center-dl.ru)
  • Despite a ban on export, Europeans sent cinchona seeds and seedlings to Java and India, where plantations were established. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Import could not meet demand, and a quest began for the most productive source of Cinchona trees to establish plantations by the British, Dutch, and French empires. (frontiersin.org)
  • A clade of high alkaloid producing trees was identified that spanned a narrow range of altitudes, from 1,100 to 1,350 m. (frontiersin.org)
  • I've chewed a piece of Gentian root before, said to be as bitter as Cinchona bark. (medicinal-foods.com)
  • The bark of the uprooted tree is beaten loose, peeled by hand, and dried quickly to prevent the loss of alkaloids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a result of selection, the alkaloid content in the bark was raised from 2-2.5 percent to 16 percent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • So successful were the Dutch and English in transplanting cinchona to Java and India that until World War II these countries, especially Java, grew practically the entire commercial supply. (thefreedictionary.com)