• Cinchona , genus of about 40 species of plants, mostly trees, in the madder family (Rubiaceae), native to the Andes of South America. (britannica.com)
  • Cinchona (pronounced /sɪŋˈkoʊnə/ or /sɪnˈtʃoʊnə/) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Cinchona plants belong to the family Rubiaceae and are large shrubs or small trees with evergreen foliage, growing 5 to 15 m (16 to 49 ft) in height. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Peruvian bark tree, also known as the Jesuit Tree or the fever tree, is a cinchona 1 of the family Rubiaceae, native to the western forests of the South American Andes. (cdc.gov)
  • Cinchona officinalis Linn.f. is commonly known as Crown bark in English belongs to family Rubiaceae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro germination and shoot proliferation of the threatened species Cinchona officinalis L (Rubiaceae). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cinchona officinalis (Rubiaceae) is an endemic species of the Loja Valley in southern Ecuador with medicinal uses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Quinas" were composed by different plant species belonging to Cinchona or Remijia genius (Rubiaceae). (mdpi.com)
  • chĭngkō`nə) , name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the madder madder, common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and herbs, especially abundant in N South America. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cinchona is a genus of tropical evergreen trees and shrubs, belonging to the family Rubiaceae. (niir.org)
  • Cinchona , common name quina, is a genus of about 25 recognized species in the family Rubiaceae, native to the tropical Andes forests of western South America. (edupil.com)
  • Plants belonging to the genus Cinchona L. ( Rubiaceae ), whose active ingredient is quinine , was used for centuries to treat malaria . (bvsalud.org)
  • Las plantas pertenecientes al género Cinchona L. ( familia Rubiaceae ), cuyo principio activo es la quinina , fueron utilizadas durante siglos para tratar la malaria . (bvsalud.org)
  • One of the most invasive species in Galapagos Islands is the red quinine tree, Cinchona pubescens Vahl (Rubiaceae). (springer.com)
  • Andersson L (1998) A revision of the Genus Cinchona (Rubiaceae-Cinchoneae), Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, vol 80. (springer.com)
  • The medicinal value of Cinchona bark was first discovered in Loxa (now Loja, Ecuador) in the seventeenth century by Jesuit monks, and soon exports of different varieties of Cinchona pubescens Vahl (red bark) from South America to Europe were reaching half a million kilograms bark per year ( Roersch van der Hoogte and Pieters, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Mid 19th century - Seeds of Cinchona calisaya and Cinchona pubescens were smuggled out by the British and the Dutch. (center-dl.ru)
  • This study aimed to the identification, quantification of quinine and other metabolites present in extracts of different polarity of the stems of Cinchona pubescens Vahl. (bvsalud.org)
  • El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la identificación y, cuantificación de la quinina y de otros metabolitos presentes en los extractos de diferente polaridad, de los tallos de Cinchona pubescens Vahl. (bvsalud.org)
  • Buddenhagen C, Yánez P (2005) The cost of quinine Cinchona pubescens control on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. (springer.com)
  • Jäger H, Kowarik I (2010) Resilience of native plant community following manual control of invasive Cinchona pubescens in Galapagos. (springer.com)
  • Jäger H, Tye A, Kowarik I (2007) Tree invasion in naturally treeless environments: impacts of quinine ( Cinchona pubescens ) trees on native vegetation in Galapagos. (springer.com)
  • the national tree of Peru is in the genus Cinchona. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carl Linnaeus described the genus based on the species Cinchona officinalis, which is found only in a small region of Ecuador and is of little medicinal significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The febrifugal properties of bark from trees now known to be in the genus Cinchona were used by many South American cultures prior to European contact, but malaria is an Old World disease that was introduced into the Americas by Europeans only after 1492. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Cinchona contains about forty species of trees. (zooscape.com)
  • Many species of cinchona (genus Cinchona) have been described. (accessscience.com)
  • 1. any of several trees or shrubs of the genus Cinchona, of the madder family, native to the Andes, esp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An explosion in demand for quinine among Europeans living in the tropics led naturalists to smuggle Cinchona seeds from South America to plantations in Asia in the 1850s and '60s and to conduct intensive research leading to new high-yield strains and improved processing methods. (britannica.com)
  • Traditional medicine uses from South America known as Jesuit's bark and Jesuit's powder have been traced to Cinchona. (wikipedia.org)
  • In South America, natural populations of Cinchona species have geographically distinct distributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cinchona is native to South America, where its species are not all well differentiated, are morphologically variable, and hybridize freely especially in cultivation, where numerous artificial hybrids have been created. (efloras.org)
  • The antipyretic properties of cinchona barks were known since ancient times in South America, particularly in Peru. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Quinine is the chief alkaloid of cinchona bark (known as 'Fever Bark'), a tree found in South America. (niir.org)
  • The native people of South America knew the medicinal applications of Cinchona before the colonials arrived. (doctorschar.com)
  • Of 38 species of cinchona, four species have economic value for the production of quinine: C. calisaya, C. legeriana, C. officianalis and C. succirubra. (niir.org)
  • Cinchona alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra and Cinchona ledgeriana. (rupertmallin.info)
  • The bank was established in the year Cinchona alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra and Cinchona ledgeriana. (center-dl.ru)
  • The list of cosmetic products below is a selection of the most requested cosmetics that contain the ingredient Cinchona Succirubra Extract. (cosmeticanalysis.com)
  • The dried bark of Cinchona succirubra Pavon (Fam. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • U. S. "Red Cinchona Bark is the dried bark of the stem and branches of cultivated plants of Cinchona succirubra, Pav. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The relation between the total alkaloid content and the activity of strictosidine synthase (EC 4.3.3.2), a key enzyme in alkaloid biosynthesis, was studied in distinct parts of six-month-old plants of Cinchona ledgeriana Moens. (springer.com)
  • Meulen, Multiplant Holding B.V. (Maarssen), for kindly providing us with Cinchona ledgeriana Moens seeds. (springer.com)
  • The preferred source for quinine is Cinchona ledgeriana, whereas a more equally distributed mixture of alkaloids comes from Cinchona calisaya.Traditionally the alkaloids are isolated by the extraction and sequential precipitation (Scheme 2).First, the Cinchona bark is extracted under basic conditions (CaO, NaOH) to an organic aromatic solvent (e.g., toluene) at elevated temperatures. (center-dl.ru)
  • For example hybrids of cinchona ledgeriana Moens and cinchona calisaya pavon produce a higher yield of alkaloids than either of the parent species. (center-dl.ru)
  • The dried bark of Cinchona Ledgeriana Moens, Cinchona Calisaya Weddell, and of hybrids of these with other species of Cinchona (Fam. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • Cinchona has been historically sought after for its medicinal value, as the bark of several species yields quinine and other alkaloids that were the only effective treatments against malaria during the height of European colonialism, which made them of great economic and political importance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The artificial synthesis of quinine in 1944, an increase in resistant forms of malaria, and the emergence of alternate therapies eventually ended large-scale economic interest in cinchona cultivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cinchona alkaloids show promise in treating falciparum malaria, which has evolved resistance to synthetic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional story connecting cinchona with malaria treatment was first recorded by the Italian physician Sebastiano Bado in 1663. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known as a medicinal plant for its bark's high quinine content- and has similar uses to Cinchona officinalis in the production of quinine, most famously used for treatment of malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippocrates found that leaves from the willow plant could reduce headache and muscle pain, which led to the discovery of aspirin, quinine to treat malaria came from the bark of the cinchona tree , and a tea brewed from the fox glove plant relieved dropsy because it contained digitalis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a section on disease, Taylor reveals the truly global links between the forests of Peru-- where the bark of the cinchona tree provided scientists with quinine and protection against malaria--and the story of two Netherlands Indies scientists smuggling the protected cinchona seeds out of Peru. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, she died on board ship (cause unknown, although it could have been malaria) in Cartagena, Columbia en route back to Spain. (hubpages.com)
  • Several species of Cinchona are the natural source of quinine, which has long been used worldwide as a treatment for malaria. (efloras.org)
  • Cinchona alkaloids have a long history as being a powerful medicine against malaria. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Identified from barks of Cinchona , quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. (mdpi.com)
  • For centuries, Cinchona alkaloids were the primary treatment of malaria. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1638, the wife of the Viceroy of Peru, the fourth Count of Chinchon, was afflicted with Malaria and was cured by cinchona. (doctorschar.com)
  • The medicinal properties of the cinchona tree are thought to have been discovered by the Quechua, indigenous people from Peru and Bolivia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The use of these barks in medicines against "fevers" in Europe in the 17th century made the exploitation of cinchonas of Peru a highly productive process, and those cinchona trees became menaced. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Not long after French scientists Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Bienaimé Caventou isolated quinine from cinchona bark in 1820, the governments of Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru unsuccessfully attempted to embargo the exportation of cinchona seeds, seedlings, or trees. (cdc.gov)
  • In Peru, Brazil and other South American cultures, Cinchona is a well-respected herb for promoting intestinal cleansing, soothing leg & muscle cramps, supporting heart health, and more! (pennherb.com)
  • Peru is home to 19 of the 24 varieties of cinchona in the world but only one variety is protected by law and cannot be felled. (laprensalatina.com)
  • Quinine, an alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree was brought to Europe from Peru in the 17th century. (center-dl.ru)
  • In the early 1800s, Peru, together with other South American countries, outlawed the export of Cinchona seeds and plants in order to maintain their monopoly on the tree bark. (center-dl.ru)
  • January 25th, 2014: Cinchona is the national tree of Peru and Ecuador. (mtpr.org)
  • Our offered Cinchona Bark is also known as Jesuit's bark or Peruvian bark. (tradeindia.com)
  • called also Jesuit's bark , and cinchona . (everything2.com)
  • Bis-(cinchona alkaloid) ligands (which are generally the better catalysts) catalyze the formation of diols of high enantiopurity from a very broad range of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This article reviews the applications of cinchona alkaloids as asymmetric catalysts. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Asymmetric reactions of dodecanethiol with β-substituted phenyl vinyl ketones were studied using polymeric and monomeric cinchona alkaloids as chiral catalysts. (nature.com)
  • A highly enantioselective nucleophilic addition of ketones to imines catalyzed by chiral phase-transfer catalysts ( N -quaternised cinchona alkaloid ammonium salts) has been developed, and the process affords the Mannich reaction products with tertiary stereocenters in good to high yields (up to 95%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee). (rsc.org)
  • Cormac Quigley, 'The design of biofunctional cinchona alkaloid derived catalysts : a new departure', [thesis], Trinity College (Dublin, Ireland). (rian.ie)
  • In addition, the latter strategy could also be carried out with modest enantioselectivities when using simple cinchona alkaloid catalysts, albeit with relatively low yields. (mdpi.com)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of an aqueous extract of Cinchona officinalis (C. officinalis) in experimental animal models. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Forestry engineer and cinchona specialist Alejandro Gómez tells Efe that during the pandemic machetes have been used to illegally extract quinine, which causes huge damage to the trees. (laprensalatina.com)
  • Calisaya (liqueur) is a herbal liqueur produced by infusing cinchona calisaya, and other barks, roots and flowers in grain neutral spirit and seville orange extract. (center-dl.ru)
  • Cinchona extract is also applied to the skin for haemorrhoids, stimulating hair growth, and managing varicose veins. (healthybenefits.info)
  • The resulting hollow particles exhibit fascinating optical activity and enantioselective adsorption capacity towards cinchona alkaloids, in which (+)-cinchonine/(−)-cinchonidine were used as chiral drug models. (rsc.org)
  • The bark and other parts of the cinchona tree contain quinine, cinchonine, and other alkaloids that have antimalarial, tonic, and antiseptic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 1820, Pelletier and Caventou isolated quinine and cinchonine from cinchona. (niir.org)
  • Linnaeus used the Italian spelling Cinchona, but the name Chinchón (pronounced [tʃinˈtʃon] in Spanish) led to Clements Markham and others proposing a correction of the spelling to Chinchona, and some prefer the pronunciation /tʃɪnˈtʃoʊnə/ for the common name of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to a N-diphenylphosphinoylimine employing cinchona alkaloids as chiral ligands. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • In foods, cinchona is used as a bitter flavoring in tonic water and alcoholic beverages. (rupertmallin.info)
  • Cinchona is bitter and works well for reducing fevers and also for back pain. (healthybenefits.info)
  • When the bark of the Cinchona tree is peeled back or chipped off, a bitter red liquid seeps out. (medicinal-foods.com)
  • I've chewed a piece of Gentian root before, said to be as bitter as Cinchona bark. (medicinal-foods.com)
  • Peruvian bark , the bitter bark of trees of various species of Cinchona. (everything2.com)
  • Cinchona trees remain the only practical source of quinine. (niir.org)
  • Though it has been synthesized in the lab, the bark of the cinchona tree is the only known natural source of quinine. (niir.org)
  • Of all of these probably but four with their cultivated hybrids yield the Cinchona Bark of commerce. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • The literature of the cinchona hybrids is hopelessly confused by the same name being frequently used by different authorities for the different hybrids and the one hybrid having various names. (henriettes-herb.com)
  • Talbor made a fortune by selling a secret remedy for fevers that consisted of cinchona bark powder mixed in claret wine. (hubpages.com)
  • After that high profile cure, the bark became known as "The Countess Powder" or Cinchona. (doctorschar.com)
  • A Jesuit priest name Barnabe de Cobo (1582-1657) is generally credited with taking the cinchona bark (aka Jesuits' bark and quinaquina bark ) back to Spain (in 1632) and had it examined and tested in Rome and elsewhere. (hubpages.com)
  • After the Jesuits learned about cinchona and brought it to Europe, its bark was widely used there to treat fevers starting in the 17th century. (cdc.gov)
  • Cinchona is sometimes called Jesuits' bark because of the part the group played in its dispersal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • later, the Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. (edupil.com)
  • However Andersson studied these species in detail cicnhona found that the name Cinchona officinalis actually applies to a species that naturally grows only in a particular region of the Andes of southern Ecuador, and contains at most trace amounts of quinine, or sometimes no quinine at all. (rupertmallin.info)
  • aromatized with cinchona calisaya bark, rhubarb and gentian root and the precious cardamom seed whose active principles are extracted with a slow maceration at room temperature. (center-dl.ru)
  • Despite a ban on export, Europeans sent cinchona seeds and seedlings to Java and India, where plantations were established. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Import could not meet demand, and a quest began for the most productive source of Cinchona trees to establish plantations by the British, Dutch, and French empires. (frontiersin.org)
  • cultivation of cinchona trees gives an opportunity to select seeds from plants yielding high-quality bark, and also to hybridize one choice strain with another. (center-dl.ru)
  • In the cinchona bark plantations the trees that are stripped regrow some of their bark and are harvested again before they are felled. (healthybenefits.info)
  • Many of the coveted cinchona seeds cling to twigs to the right of the flowers. (cdc.gov)
  • Cinchona alkaloids and their derivatives have proven to catalyze an astonishing array of enantioselective transformations, providing access to chiral products of high enantiopurity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The anti-malarial quinine comes from the bark of the Cinchona tree and salicylic acid, the basis of aspirin, is found in willow bark. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Legend has it that the name cinchona came from the countess of Chinchon, the wife of a Peruvian viceroy, who experienced support for a malarial type of fever by using the bark of the cinchona tree in 1638. (zooscape.com)
  • Quinine occurs naturally in the bark of the cinchona tree, though it has also been synthesized in the laboratory. (edupil.com)
  • Synthetically modified cinchona alkaloids are typical chiral organocatalysts used in asymmetric PTC. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Subsequently, these cinchona alkaloids were used for the osmium-catalyzed asymmetric aminohydroxylation of olefins. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • An ion-pair catalyst generated by assembly of a chiral flavinium and a cinchona alkaloid dimer for use in asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation is presented. (elsevier.com)
  • Poudel, PP, Arimitsu, K & Yamamoto, K 2016, ' Self-assembled ion-pair organocatalysis - Asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger oxidation mediated by flavinium-cinchona alkaloid dimer ', Chemical Communications , vol. 52, no. 22, pp. 4163-4166. (elsevier.com)
  • Cinchona anderssonii, a new species from the Yungas forests of the Andes in Bolivia, is described and illustrated. (worldwidescience.org)
  • All cinchonas are indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Amazonian area of the Andes, where they grow from 1,500-3,000 meters in elevation on either side of the equator (from Colombia to Bolivia). (zooscape.com)
  • The cinchona tree grows to the east of the Andes in the high jungles of the Amazon Basin. (natureandculture.org)
  • The influence of the particle size of the obtained powders on the recovery of analytes in extracts of Cinchona bark was investigated using HPLC. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The Portuguese government aware of the problem searched an alternative in cinchona varieties existing in Brazil. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Chapter 7 describes the development of an effective grinding device for the grinding of herbal samples such as Cinchona barks. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Cinchona calisaya, with a total alkaloid content up to 6.5% of which around 80% is quinine (Rusby, 1931), provided the most readily available bioactive alkaloid with barks in reliable supply, and the form extracted and administered with most ease (Achan et al. (center-dl.ru)
  • One of the sanctuaries for the cinchona, called cascarilla in Spanish, is La Cascarilla farmhouse, in the Cajamarca region. (laprensalatina.com)
  • The enantioselective extraction of aqueous 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-R,S-leucine (A(R,S)) by a cinchona alkaloid extractant (C) in 1,2-dichloroethane was studied at room temperature (294 K) in a batch system for a range of intake concentrations (10(-4)-10(-3) mol/L) and pH values (3.8-6.6). (worldwidescience.org)
  • Cinchona Alkaloid Amide Catalyzed Enantioselective Formal [2+2]Cycloadditions of Allenoates and Imines Synthesis of 2 4-Disubstituted Azetidines. (docme.ru)
  • The name has long been incorrectly used in cultivation for plants treated here as Cinchona calisaya (Andersson, loc. (efloras.org)
  • Cinchona, or quinine bark, is one of the rainforest's most famous plants and most important discoveries. (zooscape.com)
  • These results indicate that in young Cinchona plants the alkaloids are mainly synthesized in the axial extremities of the plant and that they are stored at the site of their synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Cinchona is classified in the division Magnoliophyta Magnoliophyta , division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cinchona calisaya information from ITIS The Integrated Taxonomic Information System ITIS provides authoritative taxonomic information on Cinchona calisaya, as well as other plants, animals, fungi, and microbes of North America and the world. (center-dl.ru)
  • https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T49839551A176094290.en. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "Cinchona alkaloids have been satisfactorily bound via their vinyl groups to crosslinked polymers containing thiol residues. (edu.sa)
  • At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for cinchona. (rupertmallin.info)
  • According to sources McLaren, Peru's Environment Minister Antonio Brack has announced he will honour the 'Hey Jude' hitmaker's green campaigning by awarding him the highly respected Order of the Cinchona Tree ahead of the gig. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The cinchona tree helped to save millions of lives when its bark was used to produce the anti-malarial medication quinine. (laprensalatina.com)
  • Cinchona officinalis is an evergreen Tree growing to 8 m (26ft) by 8 m (26ft) at a medium rate. (rupertmallin.info)
  • Quinine was first isolated in 1820 from the bark of a cinchona tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • A significant phylogenetic signal was found for the content of two out of four major Cinchona alkaloids (quinine and cinchonidine) and their total content. (frontiersin.org)
  • The antiveratrinic action of cinchona alkaloids, cupreines and synthetic anti-malarial drugs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Estos resultados motivan los estudios fitoquímicos en la búsqueda de principios activos y análogos estructurales en diferentes especies de Cinchonas como una fuente de nuevos agentes antimaláricos . (bvsalud.org)