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  • antigen
  • The USAMRIID researchers, led by virologist Jay Hooper, teamed up with SAB Biotherapeutics in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, to use genetically engineered cows that, when presented with an antigen, could produce fully human polyclonal antibodies against both the Sin Nombre hantavirus strain, first isolated from the Four Corners region of the southwestern United Sates, and the Andes hantavirus strain, which is prevalent in Chile. (sciencemag.org)
  • sequence
  • This Blast server searches our DNA database containing all human sequence data available from the Sanger Institute. (sanger.ac.uk)
  • common ancestry
  • This video segment from NOVA: "Judgment Day: Intelligent Design on Trial" reveals how genetic evidence helped to confirm an important component of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection: the common ancestry of humans and apes. (pbs.org)
  • More recent research has propped up Darwin's theory of common descent (also called common ancestry): genome analysis reveals the genetic difference between humans and chimps to be less than 2 percent. (pbs.org)
  • mutations
  • The phases through which chromosomes replicate, divide, shuffle, and recombine are imperfect, as DNA is subject to random mutations. (pbs.org)
  • Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In particular, it explains that humans have one fewer chromosome pair in their cells than apes, due to a mutation found in chromosome number 2 that caused two chromosomes to fuse into one. (pbs.org)
  • If humans and apes shared a common ancestor, shouldn't both have the same number of chromosomes in their cells? (pbs.org)
  • As a result, the bovines produced immune cells that spit out human antibodies. (sciencemag.org)
  • If anything, they may work better because they'll be able to communicate with human immune cells more fluently, he says. (sciencemag.org)
  • Each time one of our cells divides the chromosomes condense and form distinct shapes that can be seen by a normal light microscope. (kickstarter.com)
  • HACs were first constructed de novo in 1997 by adding alpha-satellite DNA to telomeric and genomic DNA in human HT1080 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 21HAC was also able to be transferred into cells from a variety of species (mice, chickens, humans). (wikipedia.org)
  • It represents about 8% of the total DNA in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chromosomal abnormality, which is commonly called the Philadelphia chromosome, is found only in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • The other participating groups in the Chromosome 14 Project include the Institute for Systems Biology (Seattle, Washington, USA), the Genome Sequencing Center (Washington University at St. Louis, Missouri, USA) and the Human Genome Organisation . (cns.fr)
  • million
  • Based on fossil evidence and comparative anatomy, Charles Darwin proposed that humans and great apes-which include chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans-share a common ancestor that lived several million years ago. (pbs.org)
  • clinical
  • Nonhuman antibodies from, for instance, birds and primates, have been safely administered to people in the past, so human antibodies are expected to prove safe in phase 1 clinical trials, says reproductive physiologist Eddie Sullivan of SAB Biotherapeutics, who headed the project to develop the transchromosomal cows. (sciencemag.org)
  • In order to really finish the proof-of-concept, clinical studies in humans showing safety need to be performed," Hooper says. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Chromosome 6 Research Project compares the exact alterations in chromosome 6 (the genotype) with the effect they have on the appearance and other clinical features of affected individuals (the phenotype). (wikipedia.org)