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  • homolog
  • Our data give locus order for markers not previously resolved, add Mmp2 and Dpepl as new markers on mouse Chr 8, and indicate that Ctral is the mouse homolog for human CTRL. (deepdyve.com)
  • region on chromosome
  • One such region on chromosome 7 contains the FOXP2 gene (mentioned above) and this region also includes the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which is important for ion transport in tissues such as the salt-secreting epithelium of sweat glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another such region on chromosome 4 may contain elements regulating the expression of a nearby protocadherin gene that may be important for brain development and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • The existence of such highly polymorphic areas provides a large number of individual genetic markers for the alpha globin gene cluster on chromosome 16. (ox.ac.uk)
  • If, as seems likely, such regions occur frequently throughout the human genome they should be of considerable value in the antenatal diagnosis of genetic disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The "suppressed-recombination" model of speciation points out that chromosome rearrangements act as a genetic filter between populations. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations associated with the rearranged chromosomes cannot flow from one to another population, whereas genetic exchange will freely occur between colinear chromosomes. (pnas.org)
  • It is expected that by comparing the genomes of humans and other apes, it will be possible to better understand what makes humans distinct from other species from a genetic perspective. (wikipedia.org)
  • A database now exists containing the genetic differences between human and chimpanzee genes, with about thirty-five million single-nucleotide changes, five million insertion/deletion events, and various chromosomal rearrangements. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned above, gene duplications are a major source of differences between human and chimp genetic material, with about 2.7 percent of the genome now representing differences having been produced by gene duplications or deletions during approximately 6 million years since humans and chimps diverged from their common evolutionary ancestor. (wikipedia.org)
  • These regions contain at least one marker allele that seems unique to the human lineage while the entire chromosomal region shows lower than normal genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even more, novel chromosome techniques tion by flow cytometry, and mapping of structural- have become an integral component of clinical ly and functionally distinct domains on metaphase and molecular genetic methodologies. (indigo.ca)
  • A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means color, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Wilhelm Roux suggested that each chromosome carries a different genetic load. (wikipedia.org)
  • inversions
  • Chromosome rearrangements (such as inversions, fusions, and fissions) may play significant roles in the speciation between parapatric (contiguous) or partly sympatric (geographically overlapping) populations. (pnas.org)
  • mutations
  • Mutations adaptive to local conditions will, therefore, accumulate differentially in the protected chromosome regions so that parapatric or partially sympatric populations will genetically differentiate, eventually evolving into different species. (pnas.org)
  • Human mutations in the CFTR gene might be selected for as a way to survive cholera. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosomal
  • Six human chromosomal regions were found that may have been under particularly strong and coordinated selection during the past 250,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other chromosomal conditions: Other changes in the number or structure of chromosome 22 can have a variety of effects, including mental retardation, delayed development, physical abnormalities, and other medical problems. (statemaster.com)
  • While complex- ments and oncogenes in malignancy and the ities of older questions of chromosome/ parallelism between the neoplastic and phy- chromatin organization are being understood, logenetic chromosomal alterations are discussed newer dimensions and perspectives have been in the next two chapters. (indigo.ca)
  • Comparison can be made between chromosomes that were positive by FISH and the chromosomal position using BLAST. (wikipedia.org)
  • This shows that segmental duplications are responsible for defining locations of chromosomal rearrangement within the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The author has been particularly disappointed by the illogicality of the present chromosomal (chromatin-chromosome) terminology based on, or inferred by, two terms, Chromatin (Flemming 1880) and Chromosom (Waldeyer 1888), both inappropriately ascribed to a basically non coloured state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homo
  • It is only recently that a phase chromosomes are structurally not homo- molecular view of the meiotic cell division is geneous through their length, a new world was beginning to emerge: chapter ten refers to human in the offing. (indigo.ca)
  • 1995
  • Performing the biopsy at cleavage stages has a biological problem as this is the stage when human embryos show high levels of chromosome abnormalities (Harper et al, 1995, Munne et al, 1995) and so analysis of one cell from these embryos is not representative of the rest of the embryo. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Syndrome
  • p53-mediated signaling is activated in ribosomopathy types [17,18], and p53 inhibition rescues craniofacial defects in a mouse design of Treacher Collins syndrome . (sgkinhibitor.com)
  • Most people with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome are missing about 3 million base pairs on one copy of chromosome 22 in each cell. (statemaster.com)
  • Transcription
  • In December 2003, a preliminary analysis of 7600 genes shared between the two genomes confirmed that certain genes such as the forkhead-box P2 transcription factor, which is involved in speech development, are different in the human lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • chimpanzees
  • The speciation model of suppressed recombination has recently been tested by gene and DNA sequence comparisons between humans and chimpanzees, between Drosophila species, and between species related to Anopheles gambiae , the vector of malignant malaria in Africa. (pnas.org)
  • Differences between individual humans and common chimpanzees are estimated to be about 10 times the typical difference between pairs of humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • speciation
  • According to the "hybrid-dysfunction" model, speciation occurs because hybrids with heterozygous chromosome rearrangements produce dysfunctional gametes and thus have low reproductive fitness. (pnas.org)
  • 14 Chromosome Alterations in Speciation and Neoplastic Transformation: A Parallelism. (indigo.ca)
  • fluorescence
  • The aim of the technique is to help determine the best IVF embryo for transfer on the grounds of the polar body or embryo's chromosomes , by performing biopsy and analysis of the chromosomes using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation). (bionews.org.uk)
  • researchers
  • Researchers began to question the role of ICAM-1 as a simple adhesion molecule upon discovering that ICAM-1 serves as the binding site for entry of the major group of human rhinovirus (HRV) into various cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • ancestral
  • From this, it has been observed that new-lineage segmental duplications map near shared ancestral duplications when comparing the human and chimpanzee. (wikipedia.org)
  • base pairs
  • Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, spanning about 49 million base pairs (the building material of DNA ) and representing between 1.5 and 2 percent of the total DNA in cells . (statemaster.com)
  • The chromosomes of most bacteria, which some authors prefer to call genophores, can range in size from only 130,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola and Candidatus Tremblaya princeps, to more than 14,000,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacterium Sorangium cellulosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • copies
  • Recently, we found in the human genome an unusual family of chimeric retrotranscripts composed of full-sized copies of U6 small nuclear RNAs fused at their 3' termini with 5'-truncated, 3'-poly(A)-tailed L1s. (antievolution.org)
  • People normally have two copies of this chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Some of these chimeric retrotranscripts are expressed in a variety of human tissues. (antievolution.org)
  • The authors found that at least 6 of the chimeric retrogenes that they found (out of 81) are being expressed in human tissues, indicating that they likely have a function. (antievolution.org)
  • migrations
  • There are the marks left by human evolution, the traces of ancient human migrations out of Africa and, scattered throughout, clues to your immediate ancestors' marriage habits. (technologynetworks.com)