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  • Molecular
  • We suggest that molecular transactions generating linear mitochondrial DNA molecules with defined telomeric structures may parallel the evolutionary emergence of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in general and may provide clues for the origin of telomeres and pathways implicated in their maintenance. (nih.gov)
  • fungi
  • Because aneuploidy is a common property of many pathogenic fungi, including those posing emerging threats to plants, animals and humans, we propose that aneuploid formation and LOH often accompanying it contribute to the rapid generation of diversity that can facilitate the emergence of fungal pathogens to new environmental niches and/or new hosts, as well as promote antifungal drug resistance that makes emerging fungal infections ever more difficult to contain. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Recent work suggests that aneuploidy is a common property of pathogenic and environmental isolates of unicellular fungi, ranging from basidiomycetes such as Cryptococcus neoformans , to ascomycete yeasts, including wild isolates of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , a common commensal of humans and the most prevalent cause of fungal infections of humans [ 1 , 5 - 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Dispensable chromosomes have been found in other fungi but they usually occur at a low frequency and typically represent single or a few chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome polymorphisms are very common among fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, the mitochondrion and mitochondrial chromosome is investigated (note that animals, closely related to fungi, contain similar organelles like mitochondria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Meiosis
  • Representative crossover and noncrossover distributions along chromosome IV for wild type and msh4-R676W hypomorph are shown in Figure 2, A and B. For the msh4Δ mutant, average crossovers were reduced to 49.5 / meiosis (t-test, P = 2.93 × 10−10), while noncrossovers (69.7 / meiosis, 56 median) were similar to wild type (t-test, P = 0.12). (nih.gov)
  • Stages of meiosis were determined on the basis of chromosome morphology. (nih.gov)
  • When a human germ cell undergoes meiosis the two sets of 23 chromosomes are split in half to form gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the chromosome number is generally reduced only by the specialized process of meiosis, the somatic cells of the body inherit and maintain the chromosome number of the zygote. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a germ cell with an uneven number of chromosomes undergoes meiosis, the chromosomes can't be evenly divided between two cells resulting in aneuploid gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiotic
  • The B chromosomes also have the following effects on A chromosomes: increases asymmetry chiasma distribution increases crossing over and recombination frequencies: increases variation cause increased unpaired chromosomes: infertility B chromosomes have tendency to accumulate in meiotic cell products resulting in an increase of B number over generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spores
  • The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" (from Greek: ἀσκός (askos), meaning "sac" or "wineskin"), a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fitness, a key factor in the emergence of new fungal threats, is a relative feature of genotype, phenotype, environmental conditions and the fitness of other organisms occupying the same environment. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • selective advantage
  • This genomic diversity may contribute to the emergence of new fungal threats by providing a selective advantage in certain conditions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The extra chromosomes are known as conditionally dispensable, or supernumerary, because they are dispensable for certain situations, but may confer a selective advantage under different environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rad50
  • Amino acid sequence similarity and overall architecture make Rad50 a member of the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein family. (nih.gov)
  • vector
  • New vector for transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes to mammalian cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A modification vector has been constructed to facilitate the transfer of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) to mammalian cells in culture by targeting a dominant selectable marker (G418 resistance) to the right arm of pYAC4 clones. (ox.ac.uk)
  • molecules
  • We utilized this "PFGE-shift" to follow the fate of both ends of linear molecules generated by a single random DSB in circular chromosomes. (nih.gov)
  • single
  • On the other hand, kinetochores do not cluster at any stage of the cell cycle in most metazoans, where the formation of the metaphase plate aligns all chromosomes on a single plane. (asm.org)
  • observations
  • Crossover reductions in msh4-R676W and msh4Δ were significant across chromosomes regardless of size, unlike previous observations made at specific loci.The msh4-R676W hypomorph showed reduced crossover interference.These results, along with modeling of crossover distribution, suggest the significant reduction in crossovers across chromosomes and the loss of interference compromises the obligate crossover in the msh4 hypomorph. (nih.gov)
  • human
  • Losses of crops due to fungal diseases (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage can have a large impact on human food supplies and local economies. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the fertilization of human gametes results in 3 sets of chromosomes the condition is called triploid syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first and longest human chromosome is approximately 10μm in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • arms
  • Kinetochore clustering helps in the organization of yeast chromosomes in the Rabl configuration so that chromosome arms lie freely in the nucleoplasm ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • group
  • This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). (wikipedia.org)
  • Area
  • Located on long arm of chromosome 11 at area q14.2, the entire gene including introns and exons is 42,698 base pairs on the plus strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycelia
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • PHP1B may be caused by randomly inheriting both copies of the long arm of chromosome 20 from the father rather than a copy from each parent (paternal 20q disomy), genetic mutations or epigenetic changes involving the GNAS or STX16 gene, or by unidentified genetic or epigenetic factors. (nih.gov)
  • This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome 1 may contain a gene responsible for tumor development and lead to changes in the karyotype, including fusion of the centromere, or centric fusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In squamous cell carcinoma, a protein from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is often overexpressed in conjunction with polysomy of chromosome 7, so chromosome 7 can be used to predict the presence of EGFR in squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of the HER2/neu gene on chromosome 17 and some type of polysomy has been reported in 8-68% of breast carcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an X-linked recessive inheritance trait, stemming from a mutated (abnormal) version of the IL2RG gene located on the X-chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because females have two X-chromosomes, the mother will not be affected by carrying only one abnormal X-chromosome, but any male children will have a 50% chance of being affected with the disorder by inheriting the faulty gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGM3 is a 29 kb gene with 14 exons, mapping to chromosome 6q14.1-q14.2 and encoding a 542 amino acid protein that serves as the crucial catalyst for the glycosylation pathway Protein PGM3 is required for the reversible conversion of GlcNAc-6-phosphate (GlnNAc-6-P) to GlnNAc-a-phosphate (GlcNac-1-P), a precursor step for the synthesis of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • As a member of this receptor family, dectin-1 recognizes β-glucans and carbohydrates found in fungal cell walls, some bacteria and plants, but may also recognize other unidentified molecules (endogenous ligand on T-cells and ligand on mycobacteria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain mutations and the activation of certain cell-cycle control genes can lead to bacteria forming "filament-like" cells with multiple chromosomes but without cellular division. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Destéfano-Beltran L, Nagpala P, Cetiner S, Dodds JH, Jaynes JM (1990) Enhancing bacterial fungal disease resistance in plants: application to potato. (springer.com)
  • For example, the vast majority of commercially produced bananas are cloned from a single source, the Cavendish cultivar, and those plants are currently threatened worldwide by a newly discovered fungal disease to which they are highly susceptible. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Polysomy of chromosome 13 (Polysomy 13) is significant in the development of prostate cancer and is often caused by centric fusions. (wikipedia.org)