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  • genomic
  • For example, super-resolution microscopy is now being used to visualize previously unresolved structure, genomic tools have enabled the capture of new types of proximity information on a genomic-scale and polymer physics models allow researchers to tackle questions that go far beyond the traditional biological description of chromosome structure. (biochemistry.org)
  • Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D (1999) Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. (springer.com)
  • As in all cellular organisms, length of the DNA molecules of bacterial and archaeal chromosomes is very large compared to the dimensions of the cell, and the genomic DNA molecules must be compacted to fit. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins can form clusters (like H-NS does) in order to locally compact specific genomic regions, or be scattered throughout the chromosome (HU, Fis) and they seem to be involved also in coordinating transcription events, spatially sequestering specific genes and participating in their regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleoid
  • One indication of these fluctuations in three-dimensional structure is that the shape of the bacterial nucleoid is irregular and varies in different cells in the same culture. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial nucleoid evolutionary represents an intermediate engineering solution between the protein-free DNA packing in viruses and protein-determined packing in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spatial
  • Analysis of Hi-C data and polymer modeling indicates that the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome consists of multiple, largely independent spatial domains that are probably composed of supercoiled plectonemes arrayed into a bottle brush-like fiber. (sciencemag.org)
  • gyrase
  • Lethal fragmentation of bacterial chromosomes mediated by DNA gyrase and quinolones. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gyrase is also able to remove knots from the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type IIA topoisomerases consist of several key motifs: an N-terminal GHKL ATPase domain (for gyrase, Hsp, kinase and MutL), a Toprim domain (sometimes called a Rossmann fold), which exists in both type II topoisomerases, type IA topoisomerases, and bacterial primase (DnaG), a central DNA-binding core (which structurally forms a heart-shaped structure), and a variable C-terminal domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • centromere
  • Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1984
  • Rhodococcus fascians (known as Corynebacterium fascians until 1984) is a Gram positive bacterial phytopathogen that causes leafy gall disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The famous notion that bacterial cells in the human body outnumber human cells by a factor of 10:1 has been debunked. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are approximately 39 trillion bacterial cells in the human microbiota as personified by a "reference" 70 kg male 170 cm tall, whereas there are 30 trillion human cells in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of human chromosomes was published in 1923 by Theophilus Painter. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiosis
  • By study of spermatogenesis in these and other spermatocytes, Ris established that the normal, if unusual, cycle of events in chromosomes in this modified male meiosis determines the life history of these aphids. (isciii.es)
  • nuclear
  • Ris' favorite comparisons of genetic material were of the chromosomes, nuclear membranes and cytoskeleton of eggs and sperm cells of animals including sea urchins, frogs, toads and salamanders. (isciii.es)
  • hosts
  • Bacteriophages can cause the chromosomes of their infected hosts to break up into segments small enough to fit into the newly constructed viral particles. (wikipedia.org)