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  • embryonic stem
  • In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Cdc7 is needed for proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gilbert's work focuses on the mechanisms regulating DNA replication during the cell cycle and the relationship between DNA replication and structural and functional organization of chromosomes, most recently during differentiation in human and mouse embryonic stem cells and in pediatric leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre-implantation embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells, derived from the blastocyst stage early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent, that is, they are able to differentiate to generate primitive ectoderm, which ultimately differentiates during gastrulation into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a limited number of cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the pluripotent differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells could be harnessed in vitro, it might be a means of deriving cell or tissue types virtually to order. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely in an undifferentiated state and have the capacity when provided with the appropriate signals to differentiate, presumably via the formation of precursor cells, to almost all mature cell phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows embryonic stem cells to be employed as useful tools for both research and regenerative medicine, because they can produce limitless numbers of themselves for continued research or clinical use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryonic stem cells provide hope that it will be possible to overcome the problems of donor tissue shortage and also, by making the cells immunocompatible with the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other potential uses of embryonic stem cells include investigation of early human development, study of genetic disease and as in vitro systems for toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2002 article in PNAS, "Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types, and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical
  • During the elongation phase of replication, the enzymes that were assembled at oriC during initiation proceed along each arm (" replichore ") of the chromosome, in opposite directions away from the oriC, replicating the DNA to create two identical copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle is the ordered series of events required for the faithful duplication of one eukaryotic cells into two genetically identical daughter cells. (biologyreference.com)
  • Repetition of the cell cycle may produce a clone of identical cells, such as a colony of baker's yeast on a petri dish, or it may be accompanied by intricate changes that led to differentiation into distinctive cell types, or ultimately to the development of a complex organism. (biologyreference.com)
  • A series of events that a cell undergoes, which results in 2 genetically identical daughter cells. (brainscape.com)
  • In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells within an organism have near identical nucleic acid sequences, but often exhibit different phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Having many origins of replication helps to speed the duplication of their (usually) much larger store of genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used in the context of cell development, the term refers to increase in cytoplasmic and organelle volume (G1 phase), as well as increase in genetic material (G2 phase) following the replication during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of DNA was studied by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins using X-ray crystallography, which led James D. Watson and Francis Crick to publish a model of the double-stranded DNA molecule whose paired nucleotide bases indicated a compelling hypothesis for the mechanism of genetic replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotes undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In S phase, the chromosomes are replicated in order for the genetic content to be maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • interacts
  • After DnaB translocates to the apex of each replication fork, the helicase both unwinds the parental DNA and interacts momentarily with primase . (wikipedia.org)
  • In S phase, the Mcm2-7 complex interacts with helicase cofactors Cdc45 and GINS to isolate a single DNA strand, unwind the origin, and begin replication down the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • unwound
  • Without histones, the unwound DNA in chromosomes would be very long (a length to width ratio of more than 10 million to 1 in human DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • progression of the cell
  • This S-phase checkpoint responds to various forms of DNA damage, such as single-and double-strand breaks in the DNA backbone or incorporation of unusual nucleotides , and halts the progression of the cell cycle until effective repairs have occurred. (biologyreference.com)
  • The switches maintain the orderly progression of the cell cycle and act as checkpoints to ensure that each phase has been properly completed before progression to the next phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Gilbert received his BA degrees in Biochemistry/Cell Biology and Philosophy from the University of California, San Diego and his PhD in Genetics from Stanford University. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has served on American Cancer Society (1996-2004) and NIH study sections (1997-present) and is an editorial member of the Epigenetics Society and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Cell Biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) MCMs, like those in metazoans, are found in the nucleus throughout the cell cycle. (embl.de)
  • ARSs can be placed at any novel location of the chromosomes of budding yeast and will facilitate replication from those sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationship between cell size and cell division has been extensively studied in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast cell-size mutants were isolated that begin cell division before reaching a normal/regular size (wee mutants). (wikipedia.org)
  • In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. Pombe), cells divide at a defined, reproducible size during mitosis because of the regulated activity of Cdk1. (wikipedia.org)