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  • embryos
  • The ter mutation first causes primordial germ cell deficiency in ter/ter mouse embryos at 8 days of gestation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Validation of next-generation sequencing for comprehensive chromosome screening of embryos. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Different hemoglobins are synthesized in mammalian embryos and adults, but all of them depend on an enhancer (called the locus control region, or LCR) to activate their transcription. (nih.gov)
  • As a demonstration, Zebrafish embryos were microinjected with F- ara -EdU at the one-cell stage and chased by BrdU at 10 h after fertilization. (pnas.org)
  • embryo
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the scientific term for cloning, involves creating an embryo by using a nucleus that's been removed from a somatic cell - any cell other than a reproductive cell - and transferring it into an unfertilized egg that has had its chromosomes removed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Surprisingly, the granulocytes were the most efficient donor cells for nuclear transfer among the different lineage cells, with 35 to 39 percent becoming a blastocyst, an early embryo consisting of about 100 to 150 cells, compared to 11 percent for the progenitor cells and only 4 percent for the stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Without a Y, or with a Y which doesn't function properly, a mammalian embryo will automatically develop into a female. (coursehero.com)
  • gene expression
  • We also provide evidence that DNA methylation and genetic variation at the β-globin locus independently control globin gene expression in adult erythroblasts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that increasing evidence supports the notion that low BPA concentrations adversely affect the epigenome of mammalian female germ cells, with functional consequences on gene expression, chromosome dynamics in meiosis, and oocyte development. (hindawi.com)
  • As such they may transiently alter gene expression patterns in exposed cells, organs, and individuals by interfering in hormonal homeostasis, for example, by acting as agonist or antagonist in hormone receptor-mediated signalling. (hindawi.com)
  • We are also interested in the functional impact on gene expression of overall chromosome folding in the nucleus, which is thought to depend on architectural factors such as CTCF and cohesin. (nih.gov)
  • Biology
  • Li's team zeroed in on Gtl2 by studying hematopoietic stem cells in mice with support from Stowers core centers including cytometry, bioinformatics, histology and electron microscopy, molecular biology, and tissue culture. (innovations-report.com)
  • To the contrary, we found that cloned pups can be produced from adult, fully differentiated somatic cells, a conclusion that goes against popular opinion and current hypotheses," says Dr. Yang, animal science professor, director of the University of Connecticut's Center for Regenerative Biology and co-corresponding author of the study. (eurekalert.org)
  • We are now accepting submissions for our upcoming special issue on 'Reconstituting cell biology', guest edited by Manuel Théry. (biologists.org)
  • 1 Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology have shown that functional and structural abnormality of the primary cilia of the renal tubular epithelial cells subsequently lead to hereditary renal cystic diseases. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases. (jove.com)
  • As the title The Cell Biology of Stem Cells suggests, our book deals with multiple aspects of stem cell biology, ranging from their basic molecular characteristics to the in vivo stem cell trafficking of adult stem cells and the adult stem-cell niche, and ends with a visit to regeneration and cell fate reprogramming. (springer.com)
  • mTOR
  • Novel drugs such as vasopressin receptor blockers and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (for example, sirolimus) are shown to decrease the rate of cyst growth and halt disease progression 11 . (appliedradiology.com)
  • development
  • Mosaicism may result from a mutation during development which is propagated to only a subset of the adult cells. (t-vox.org)
  • Mammalian females are usually mosaic because one of their X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during development. (t-vox.org)
  • We created a novel inducible mouse line Keratocan-rtTA ( Kera RT ) that allows specific genetic modification in corneal keratocytes and tenocytes during development and in adults. (arvojournals.org)
  • A wide spectrum of hereditary and non-hereditary disorders results in development of renal cysts in adult patients. (appliedradiology.com)
  • We study how transcription is activated during development when less specialized cells become more specialized cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. (jove.com)
  • Following 3 d of development, complex patterns of quiescent/senescent cells containing only F- ara -EdU were observed in larvae along the dorsal side of the notochord and epithelia. (pnas.org)
  • human
  • Because of their extraordinary transformative qualities, the transplantation or transfusion of isolated human hematopoietic stem cells has been used in the treatment of anemia, immune deficiencies, and other diseases, including cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • The TEGT gene in human is located on chromosome 12q12-q13, which shares homology with swine chromosome 5. (usda.gov)
  • In vitro tests show that arformoterol is an inhibitor of the release of mast cell mediators, such as histamine and leukotrienes, from the human lung. (nih.gov)
  • C. The body of an adult human being is composed of 60 to 100 trillion somatic (body) cells. (coursehero.com)
  • In fact, stem cells can be considered revolutionary in the field of medicine, especially in the treatment of a wide range of human diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides enabling the production of biological components of human interest, such as vaccines and hormones, cell cultures help in the advancement of stem cell research by allowing the improvement of the stem cells for cellular therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • The mouse Erk3 gene was mapped to a single locus on central mouse chromosome 9, adjacent to the dilute mutation locus and in a region syntenic to human chromosome 15q21. (biochemj.org)
  • EDITOR'S NOTE: Two of the most hotly debated and currently controversial topics-in the fields of science, religion, ethics, and politics-are human cloning and stem-cell research. (apologeticspress.org)
  • Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. (jove.com)
  • A new study by Australian scientists has shown that Proteins in human stem cells grown in microgravity don't appear in stem cells grown in normal gravity and this has implications for long-term human voyages in space and it also has potential for helping solve ground-based medical problems. (pubstemcell.com)
  • In addition to higher tissue specificity, lncRNAs are characterized by higher developmental stage specificity, and cell subtype specificity in heterogeneous tissues, such as human neocortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiosis
  • Although most forms of trisomy are due to problems in meiosis and affect all cells of the organism, there are cases where the trisomy only occurs in a selection of the cells. (t-vox.org)
  • MSCI is one example of a general mechanism, meiotic silencing, which inactivates any chromosome that is unsynapsed during male or female meiosis [ 7 , 8 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • subset
  • Over the three-year study, investigators used transcriptome profiling to analyze 17 hematopoietic cell types and found that non-coding RNAs expressed from the Gtl2 locus are predominantly located in a subset of the cell types, including adult "long-term" hematopoietic stem cells which have long-term self-renewal capacity. (innovations-report.com)
  • vitro
  • The composition of the culture medium is critical to the success of cell culture and the maintenance of cells for long periods in vitro , often requiring to be supplemented with other factors, such as serum. (hindawi.com)
  • To better understand the possible maintenance of T. b. gambiense in local fauna and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation, we generated adapted cells lines (ACLs) by in vitro culture of the parasites in different mammalian sera. (jove.com)
  • vivo
  • Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo . (jove.com)
  • The current challenge for many cancer researchers is to dissect these changes in each cell type during the multiple-step process in vivo . (jove.com)
  • concentrations
  • In addition, BrdU itself is both toxic and mutagenic when applied at high concentrations, and it can have a negative impact on DNA stability and the cell cycle ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • populations
  • The finding opens the possibility for Gtl2 to be used as a biomarker because it could help label dormant (or reserve) stem cells in normal or potentially cancerous stem cell populations, Li says. (innovations-report.com)
  • In medicine (genetics), a mosaic or mosaicism denotes the presence of two populations of cells with different genotypes in one patient, where usually one of the two is affected by a genetic disorder. (t-vox.org)
  • conducted an extensive study of X- miRNA expression patterns, in which miRNA levels were evaluated by RT-qPCR in purified spermatogenic cell populations. (prolekare.cz)
  • mammals
  • Moreover, they say results of their studies provide compelling evidence that Dolly the sheep and other mammals cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer were most likely derived from fully differentiated cells, not adult stem cells, as most have argued in the nine years since Dolly was first created. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1. Female mammals have 22 pairs of autosomes plus one pair of X chromosomes (sex chromosomes) 2. (coursehero.com)
  • Genetics
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (eurekalert.org)
  • linkage
  • The TEGT gene was mapped to chromosome 5 position 52 cM, which is the same position as marker SWR453 on the current MARC swine chromosome 5 linkage map (http://www.marc.usda.gov/) using CRI-MAP. (usda.gov)
  • A Linkage Between DNA Markers on the X Chromosome and Male Sexual Orientation" (1993), by Dean H. Hamer and Charles A. Thomas. (asu.edu)
  • bone marrow
  • A phase I clinical trial in six people with chronic multiple sclerosis (MS) investigating whether it was safe to treat them with stem cells from their own bone marrow was described by a few newspapers as controversial but the trial proved safe as it has helped stabilize the disease. (pubstemcell.com)
  • methylome
  • Recently, it has been shown in rodents that in utero undernourishment alters the germline DNA methylome of 1 adult males in a locus-specific manner. (hindawi.com)
  • locus
  • A particular location in DNA, called the Dlk1-Gtl2 locus, plays a critical role in protecting hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells--a discovery revealing a critical role of metabolic control in adult stem cells, and providing insight for potentially diagnosing and treating cancer, according to researchers from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research. (innovations-report.com)
  • But when working properly, the Gtl2 locus acts as a great protector of cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • In subsequent experiments, deleting the locus from the maternally inherited allele in hematopoietic stem cells increased mitochondrial biogenesis and subsequent metabolic activity as well as increased ROS levels, with the latter inducing cell death. (innovations-report.com)
  • suggests
  • The commonality of core-region length, and the abrupt transition in mammalian centrioles, suggests a conserved length-setting mechanism. (sdbonline.org)
  • type
  • PITTSBURGH, Oct. 1 - New research dismisses the notion that adult stem cells are necessary for successful animal cloning, proving instead that cells that have completely evolved to a specific type not only can be used for cloning purposes, but they may be a better and more efficient starting point. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into any specialized cell type, they have been heralded for their promise for treating a variety of diseases and conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cells lacking the Dnmt1 gene have 50-100 times higher levels of intracisternal A particle (IAP), a type of endogenous virus whose expression levels are frequently elevated in cancer cells with genomic instability ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • transcription
  • Their unique potential to self-renew and differentiate has turned them into an attractive model for the study of basic biological questions such as cell division, replication, transcription, cell fate decisions, and more. (springer.com)
  • sperm
  • This gene is highly expressed in adult rat testis, and thus it may support the survival of germ cells or support cells in the testis, which may lead to increased sperm production. (usda.gov)
  • That zygote-which then contained the full complement of 54 chromosomes (as if it had been fertilized by a sperm cell)-was placed into the uterus of a second Scottish Blackface sheep that served as a surrogate mother. (apologeticspress.org)
  • study
  • This study used electron cryo-tomography to determine the structure of mammalian (triplet) and Drosophila (doublet) centrioles. (sdbonline.org)
  • The study hypothesized that some X chromosomes contain a gene, Xq28, that increases the likelihood of an individual to be homosexual. (asu.edu)