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  • mature oocytes
  • Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2), a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1) was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. (jove.com)
  • meiotic arrest
  • Many studies have shown that cyclic adenosine-5-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and G-protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3) are crucial for controlling meiotic arrest in oocytes. (jove.com)
  • Proteins
  • Isolated follicles can be used for a variety of experimental techniques, including in vitro development assays, live imaging, mRNA expression analysis and western blot analysis of proteins. (jove.com)
  • The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • Unlike mitotic cells, mammalian oocytes lack typical centrosomes that consist of two centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar matrix proteins, which serve as microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most somatic cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Hence, they fully depend on the maternal mRNAs and proteins stored during oocyte maturation to drive the onset of development. (mdpi.com)
  • Because of a low expression of O -GlcNAcylation in Xenopus oocyte, classical enrichment of O -GlcNAc-bearing proteins using O -GlcNAc-directed antibodies or wheat germ agglutinin lectin affinity were hard to apply, albeit these techniques allowed the identification of actin and erk2. (mcponline.org)
  • Therefore, another strategy based on an in vitro enzymatic labeling of O -GlcNAc residues with azido-GalNAc followed by a chemical addition of a biotin alkyne probe and by enrichment of the tagged proteins on avidin beads was used. (mcponline.org)
  • Bound proteins were analyzed by nano-LC-nano-ESI-MS/MS allowing for the identification of an average of 20 X. laevis oocyte O -GlcNAcylated proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Germ Cells
  • In contrast, exposure to follicle-enclosed oocytes, which no longer expressed topoisomerase IIα in the germ cells, had no effect on total follicle numbers or health, the only effect seen specific to transitional follicles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • retrieval
  • Accordingly, Lesley underwent a laparoscopic oocyte retrieval during a natural non- stimulated ovulatory cycle. (jri.ir)
  • When the woman's follicles are mature, an oocyte (egg) retrieval (egg aspiration) procedure is performed to remove the eggs from the follicles. (winfertility.com)
  • First, the woman must be stimulated with medications and have an oocyte retrieval. (winfertility.com)
  • ICSI is generally performed following a transvaginal oocyte retrieval procedure to extract one to several oocytes from a woman. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem Cells
  • The formation of oocyte-like cells (OLCs) from somatic stem cells, isolated from newborn mouse skin, has been demonstrated and can be visualized in this video protocol. (jove.com)
  • experiments
  • In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor) controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. (jove.com)
  • Experiments conducted by Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider, and Jack Szostak from 1982 to 1989 provided theories of how the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres, and the enzyme that repairs telomeres, called telomerase, worked. (asu.edu)
  • Barbara McClintock conducted experiments on corn (Zea mays) in the United States in the mid-twentieth century to study the structure and function of the chromosomes in the cells. (asu.edu)
  • Cells
  • During FSH-induced maturation, rapid cAMP surges were observed in both cumulus cells and oocyte. (jove.com)
  • Most GJC between cumulus cells and oocyte ceased immediately after FSH stimulation and recommenced after the cAMP surge. (jove.com)
  • These cells could then be differentiated into the affected cell type of the patient and studied in vitro, or used to replace the damaged or missing cells. (jove.com)
  • Called comprehensive chromosome screening with vitrification, it involves taking a few cells from a blastocyst - an embryo just five or six days old. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • He researched the mechanisms of inheritance and of mitosis, or the process in which the chromosomes in the nucleus of a single cell, called the parent cell, split into identical sets and yield two cells, called daughter cells. (asu.edu)
  • Oocytes and spermatozoa are terminally differentiated haploid cells which can no longer divide. (mdpi.com)
  • mice
  • Here, we describe methods to isolate prophase-arrested oocytes from mice and for microinjection. (jove.com)
  • We report here that mice harboring Hdac1 −/+ / Hdac2 −/− or Hdac2 −/− oocytes are infertile or sub-fertile, respectively. (prolekare.cz)
  • The infertility of mice harboring Hdac1 −/+ / Hdac2 −/− oocytes is attributed to failure of those few eggs that properly mature to metaphase II to initiate DNA replication following fertilization. (prolekare.cz)
  • Adenovirus-mediated Gene Delivery and in Vitro Microinsemination Produce Offspring from Infertile Male Mice Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. (jove.com)
  • ovarian
  • Our in vitro culture system employs hydrogels in order to mimic the native ovarian environment by maintaining the 3D follicular architecture, cell-cell interactions and paracrine signaling that direct follicle development 5 . (jove.com)
  • Herein, we describe an encapsulation method and an in vitro culture system for ovarian follicles within a FA-IPN. (jove.com)
  • To appraise the feasibility of current adult medical and surgical techniques for ovarian preservation in pre-pubertal and adolescent girls with cancer. (springer.com)
  • interphase
  • Dr Peter Nagy, from Reproductive Biology Associates, Atlanta, collaborating with the University of Connecticut, USA, told the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology annual conference that former approaches to haploidisation using a fully mature oocyte and a resting (interphase) somatic cell had caused misaligned chromosomes during cell division. (innovations-report.com)
  • infertility
  • Results: A speedy advancement in the development of different assisted reproductive techniques makes infertility problem more treatable than it ever had been. (jri.ir)
  • oct4
  • Co-expression of cyp26a1 and the pluripotent germ cell stem cell marker pou5f1(oct4) in meiotically arrested oocytes was consistent with roles in mouse to promote germ cell survival and to prevent apoptosis, mechanisms that are central for tipping the sexual fate of gonads towards the female pathway in zebrafish. (jove.com)
  • The resulting OLCs express various markers consistent with oocytes such as Oct4 , Vasa , Bmp15 , and Scp3 . (jove.com)
  • kinetochores
  • Most importantly, the spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 could be detected on kinetochores even in oocytes cultured for 10 h. (jove.com)
  • This method uses monastrol, a kinesin-5 inhibitor, that collapses the bipolar spindle into a monopolar spindle 9 thus separating chromosomes such that individual kinetochores can readily be detected and counted by using an anti-CREST autoimmune serum. (jove.com)
  • The increased amount of acetylated H4K16 likely impairs kinetochore function in oocytes lacking HDAC2 because kinetochores in mutant oocytes are less able to form cold-stable microtubule attachments and less CENP-A is located at the centromere. (prolekare.cz)
  • mRNAs
  • This oocyte-to-embryo transition needs an efficient and tightly regulated translation of the maternally-inherited mRNAs, which likely contributes to embryonic genome activation. (mdpi.com)
  • transition
  • We have described previously the sudden O -GlcNAcylation increase occurring during the Xenopus laevis oocyte G 2 /M transition, and we have demonstrated that the inhibition of O -GlcNAc-transferase (OGT) blocked this process, showing that the O -GlcNAcylation dynamism interferes with the cell cycle progression. (mcponline.org)
  • arrest
  • Deletion of ERK3 by microinjection of ERK3 morpholino (ERK3 MO) resulted in oocyte arrest at the MI stage with severely impaired spindles and misaligned chromosomes. (jove.com)
  • Before the development of the ROSI technique, men with the arrest of spermatogenesis at the round spermatid stage could only have children with the use of donor spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Xenopus
  • Additionally, many of the techniques to overexpress or inhibit gene function in organisms such as Xenopus and zebrafish fail to sufficiently target critical maternal signaling pathways, such as Wnt signaling. (jove.com)
  • In Xenopus , manipulating gene function in cultured oocytes and subsequently fertilizing them can ameliorate these problems to some extent. (jove.com)
  • Xenopus laevis oocyte has been widely used as a model for studying the regulation of the cell cycle. (mcponline.org)
  • humans
  • Curt Jacob Stern studied radiation and chromosomes in humans and fruit flies in the United States during the twentieth century. (asu.edu)
  • subsequently
  • Subsequently, Comparative Genomic Hybridization array (CGHa) and most recently Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) enable the detection of cytogenetic changes, including every chromosome in the complement. (weebly.com)
  • gametes
  • Because generation of transgenic and gene-targeted mouse mutants is costly and can take long periods of time, manipulation of female gametes in vitro is a more economical and time-saving strategy. (jove.com)
  • genetic
  • Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. (jove.com)
  • this allows one to combine genetic or pharmacologic perturbations with in vitro development to define the effects of such manipulations on the processes occurring during specific periods of development. (jove.com)
  • Stern worked on the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly, and he provided early evidence that chromosomes exchange genetic material during cellular reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • The oocyte provides the physical space where this process takes place, most of the energetic need, and half of the genetic contribution. (mdpi.com)
  • This technique can be used to enable genetic fatherhood to some men who have no spermatozoa in the ejaculate (azoospermia) and in whom spermatozoa cannot be obtained surgically from the testicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In domestic felids considerable progress has been made in the development of modern methodologies of ARTs including in vitro embryo production and banking of genetic resources. (biomedcentral.com)