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  • homologous
  • Second, the neo-sex chromosome is homologous to the sex chromosomes of mammals, which makes it possible - for the first time - to study mammalian X gene homologs in a novel, avian Z-linked environment where females are the heterogametic sex (ZW), and thus to draw direct parallels over the avian ZW-mammalian XY boundary. (lu.se)
  • mutations
  • Finally, we use our unique 30-year ecological dataset and rich collection of DNA samples of the great reed warbler to test the widely accepted but poorly supported sexual antagonism hypothesis suggesting that sexually antagonistic mutations accumulate on the sex chromosomes and drive their evolution. (lu.se)
  • To understand the interplay between sex chromosomes and sexual conflicts by studying whether sexually antagonistic mutations accumulate on sex chromosomes, and whether sexual conflicts drive sex chromosome evolution. (lu.se)
  • situation
  • This is an ideal situation for research on sex chromosomes, because the processes we wish to study have had some time to leave detectable genomic footprints, but have not yet removed the material we want to investigate. (lu.se)
  • system
  • We are now exploring this remarkable neo-sex chromosome system to understand the evolution of sex chromosomes in terms of recombination cessation and gene content. (lu.se)
  • In the cichlid genus Tilapia and its close relatives, sex is determined by two pairs of chromosomes, one of which functions as an XY system and the other as ZW . (genetics.org)
  • genome
  • Life depends on the propagation of genetic material from one generation to the next through cycles of genome replication and cell division. (upenn.edu)
  • The genome is copied by the parent, and one exact copy is inherited by each daughter cell. (upenn.edu)
  • We will treat chromosomes as discrete entities, rather than collections of genes, that are replicated and divided with high fidelity to ensure that the genome remains stable over many generations. (upenn.edu)
  • Despite active investigation of the roles of these factors, a genome‐wide view of dynamic chromosome architecture at both small and large scale during cell division is still missing. (embopress.org)
  • Here, we report the first comprehensive 4D analysis of the higher‐order organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome throughout the cell cycle and investigate the roles of SMC complexes in controlling structural transitions. (embopress.org)
  • The long-term objective is to identify pathways that will specifically lead to killing of cancer cells overexpressing CENP-A. Our laboratory recently reported on the identification and characterization of genes that are """"""""haploinsufficient"""""""" (HI) for genome stability. (grantome.com)
  • A frequently occurring and long-recognized departure from this paired chromosome structure occurs when the genome reduplicates without chromatid separation (hereafter: genome reduplication). (bio-zentrum.com)
  • Importantly, SMC1-mediated chromosome structure stability and DNA damage repair are considered as important mechanisms for the maintenance of genome integrity. (ijbs.com)
  • Recent studies showed that SMC1B is also expressed in somatic mammalian cells as a member of a mitotic cohesin complex preserving genome stability in response to irradiation [ 37 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means color, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The primary result of mitosis and cytokinesis is the transfer of a parent cell's genome into two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes-complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for proper cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Themes of research included signal transduction (biology of tissues and organs, and molecular cell biology) and genome integrity (cell cycle and chromosomes and DNA repair). (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Repetition of the cell cycle may produce a clone of identical cells, such as a colony of baker's yeast on a petri dish, or it may be accompanied by intricate changes that led to differentiation into distinctive cell types, or ultimately to the development of a complex organism. (biologyreference.com)
  • Building on a long series of successful meetings, this meeting has been known as 'The' Yeast Chromosome Meeting, a not-to-be-missed gathering of the most important work in the field. (faseb.org)
  • In the budding yeast, initial cell cycle entry is controlled by two regulatory complexes, SBF (SCB-binding factor) and MBF (MCB-binding factor). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Treatment of cells with 1-3% formaldehyde, for 10-30min at room temperature is most common, however, standardization for preventing high protein-DNA cross linking is necessary, as this may negatively affect the efficiency of restriction digestion in the subsequent step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just as its name suggests, the Shugoshin protein guides chromosome cohesion during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Howard-Flanders group at Yale University, West purified and characterised RecA protein, and in doing so discovered many key aspects relating to the way that cells mediate DNA-DNA interactions and strand exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • During meiotic recombination in human and mouse, CHEK1 protein kinase is important for integrating DNA damage repair with cell cycle arrest. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein is bound to kinetochores and plays a key role in the establishment of the mitotic spindle checkpoint and chromosome congression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein kinase Bub1 possesses versatile and distinct functions during the cell cycle, mainly in the SAC and chromosome alignment during metaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • The apparent simplicity of the particular alignment, division, and locomotion of chromosomes in each normal cell division belies the many levels of regulation that guarantee such precision. (biologyreference.com)
  • In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SMC1 in cell cycle regulation, genomic stability and its mutations in various cancers, and discuss the potential role of SMC1 serving as a biomarker in clinical cancer diagnosis. (ijbs.com)
  • Generally speaking, the cell cycle regulation of meiosis is similar to that of mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinetochore
  • We propose that combining HDAC inhibitors with drugs that compromise kinetochore function may be more effective for cancer treatment with minimal effect on normal cells. (grantome.com)
  • The latter interaction is essential for kinetochore localization of Bub1 and its function in cell cycle arrest induced by spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • microtubules
  • Microtubules project from opposite ends of the cell, attach to the centromeres, and align the chromosomes centrally within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure formed by the centrosomes and the microtubules is named mitotic spindle, due to its characteristic shape, holding the chromosomes between the two centrosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules (MTs) are long proteic filaments, with asymmetric extremities: one end termed "minus" (-) end, relatively stable and close to the centrosome, and an end termed "plus" (+) end, with alternating phases of growth and retraction, exploring the center of the cell searching the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • divide
  • When a cell is ready to divide, it enters the mitotic phase. (reference.com)
  • The rest of the cell may then continue to divide by cytokinesis to produce two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a different process called binary fission. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, animal cells undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, whereas fungi undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cells are ready to divide, because cell size is big enough or because they receive the appropriate stimulus, they activate the mechanism to enter into the cell cycle, and they duplicate most organelles during S (synthesis) phase, including their centrosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • inheritance
  • The Cell in Development and Inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aided by the rediscovery at the start of the 1900s of Gregor Mendel's earlier work, Boveri was able to point out the connection between the rules of inheritance and the behaviour of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his famous textbook The Cell in Development and Heredity, Wilson linked together the independent work of Boveri and Sutton (both around 1902) by naming the chromosome theory of inheritance the Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory (the names are sometimes reversed). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer
  • Overexpression and mis-localization of HJURP has been reported in lung and breast cancer cells and patients with elevated HJURP expression show reduced survival rate. (grantome.com)
  • left untreated, they may turn into a type of cancer called Squamous cell skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2001, the Nobel Committee again honoured the Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratories with the award of a share of the Prize to Dr Paul Nurse, then Chief Executive of Cancer Research UK and a group leader at the Lincoln's Inn Fields laboratories for his work on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Angelika Amon, Ph.D. (b. 1967) is an Austrian American molecular and cell biologist, and the Kathleen and Curtis Marble Professor in Cancer Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlates
  • We established the cause and effect of Cse4 mis-localization by showing that altered histone dosage and mis-localization of Cse4 to non-centromeric loci correlates with chromosome loss. (grantome.com)
  • instability
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15204.002 Introduction Regulating mitotic chromosome structure is critical to preventing genomic instability (Gordon et al. (bio-zentrum.com)
  • He is a member of the Scientific Advisory Boards of the Leibniz Institute on Aging, Fritz Lippman Institute, Jena, Germany, the Center for Chromosome Instability, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the China Medical University (Taiwan). (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • Cleveland has made pioneering discoveries of the mechanisms of chromosome movement and cell-cycle control during normal cellular division, as well as of the principles of neuronal cell development and their relationship to the defects that contribute to inherited neurodegenerative disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • By reading selected primary literature covering several decades, we will build an understanding of the cell cycle by focusing on chromosomes and the associated molecular machinery. (upenn.edu)
  • Molecular Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2009 Cornelia I. Bargmann, for her extraordinarily inventive and successful use of molecular and classical genetics to probe the individual nerve cell basis of behavior in C. elegans. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • biochemical
  • Coat colour in mammals is determined by the presence, distribution and biochemical activity of the melanocytes, which are specialized cells where eumelanins (black/brown pigments) and pheomelanins (yellow/red pigments) are synthesized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mRNA
  • Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the transformed cells to revert to their original non-malignant phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • This indicates that Sulfolobus has a TCA cycle system similar to that found in mitochondria of eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Altered DNA methylation at various CpG sites was associated with exposure to mercury, lead or BPA, providing candidates to be investigated using a larger study sample, as the results may reflect an independently associated predictor (e.g. socioeconomic status, diet, genetic variants, altered blood cell composition). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • nervous system
  • In addition, this proteolipid is localized in compact myelin of cells in the nervous system and has been implicated in myelin biogenesis and/or function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Division
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. (wikipedia.org)
  • After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before a cell can enter cell division, it needs to take in nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously it was called resting stage because there is no apparent activity related to cell division.Typically interphase lasts for at least 90% of the total time required for the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is best known for his work on the segregation of chromosomes during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant
  • To solve this problem, recombinant E. coli overexpressing GadB was employed as a whole cell biocatalyst in buffer solution containing MSG. (springeropen.com)
  • 2000 ). Because GadA and GadB are intracellular enzymes, and most MSG are out of the cells, the recombinant E. coli cells have to be specially treated by sonication, ethyl acetate, toluene, and thermal activation to increase the permeability (Zhao et al. (springeropen.com)
  • kinase
  • When the cell is treated with TGF-β, HIPK2, a nuclear kinase, phosphorylates Daxx and the activated Daxx in turn activates the JNK pathway (see "The Daxx Pathway" figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such inhibitor is imatinib mesylate, which occupies the tyrosine kinase domain and inhibits BCR-ABL's influence on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Antagonizes MYC transcriptional activity by competing for MAX and suppresses MYC dependent cell transformation. (uniprot.org)
  • In the mid-1990s Nasmyth co-discovered the APC/C and showed that its activity induces chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • In other words, it is possible that in fast growth conditions the grandmother cells starts replicating its DNA for grand daughter cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other changes in the number or structure of chromosome 7 can cause delayed growth and development, mental disorder, characteristic facial features, skeletal abnormalities, delayed speech, and other medical problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The principle metabolic pathways are a glycolytic pathway, a pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • The body therefore naturally produces anti-oxidants that neutralise "sweep up" these free radicals to prevent cells from becoming damaged but often not in sufficient quantities. (totalhealth.co.uk)