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  • replication
  • The principal constituents of the chromosomes are nucleoproteins containing deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA (see nucleic acid nucleic acid, any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Giemsa bands are related to functional nuclear processes such as replication or transcription in the following points. (pnas.org)
  • Hellmer A, Voiculescu I, Schempp W (1991) Replication banding studies in two cyprinid fishes. (springer.com)
  • Giemsa
  • Fixed metaphase chromosomes from mouse strain RIII embryos or A9 cells were treated with a restriction endonuclease, followed by Giemsa staining. (springer.com)
  • Here we show that 850-level Giemsa bands are best correlated with the difference in GC content between a local window of 2.5 megabases and a regional window of 9.3 megabases along a chromosome. (pnas.org)
  • Our results clearly show that Giemsa-dark bands are locally GC-poor regions compared with the flanking regions. (pnas.org)
  • These findings are consistent with the model that matrix-associated regions, which are known to be AT-rich, are present more densely in Giemsa-dark bands than in -light bands. (pnas.org)
  • The relative position of each boundary between neighboring Giemsa bands in relation to the total euchromatic portion of each chromosomal arm was obtained from Francke ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The basic idea to calculate the similarity score S between Giemsa bands and in silico bands is to determine the optimal "alignment" of G bands by using dynamic programming ( 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • Genetics
  • The very large chromosomes in the salivary gland cells of Drosophila and other insects have furnished valuable material for the study of genetics genetics, scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This book continues to fulfill that need, and is strengthened by the complete revision of material on the molecular genetics of chromosomes and chromosomal defects. (springer.com)
  • 1992
  • Maistro EL, Foresti F, Oliveira C, Almeida-Toledo LF (1992) Occurrence of macro B chromosomes in Astyanax scabripinnis paranae (Pisces, Characiformes, Characidae). (springer.com)
  • Analysis
  • Analysis of balanced rearrangements of chromosome 6 in acute leukemia: clustered breakpoints in q22-q23 and possible involvement of c-MYB in a new recurrent translocation, t(6;7)(q23;q32 through 36). (openrepository.com)
  • In this paper several new techniques for automated chromosome analysis are described: one for piecewise-linear chromosome stretching and projection, two for accurately localizing the centromere and one for two-dimensional local band pattern description. (uva.nl)
  • Recently, 338 clones were mapped to 850-level bands of varying staining intensity, and the sequence analysis of the regions surrounding these clones confirmed that G bands are more AT-rich than R bands with statistical significance ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • The chromosome composition of these lines was described by GISH and C-banding methods, and SSR analysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • The chromosome composition of lines 1R(1A), 2R(W)1, 5R(W), 5R(5A), and 6R(W)1, which were earlier obtained according to the same scheme for crossing, was characterized using methods of telocentric analysis, GISH, C-banding, and SSR analysis. (deepdyve.com)
  • Segment
  • Ava II and Bst NI each produced a G-band pattern, but on most chromosomes only a small segment of each C-band, adjacent to the centromere, was stained. (springer.com)
  • Similarly, the original BS181 hybrid contained at least one copy of each rat chromosome, whereas BS181 a- and h-subclones displayed a deletion of the segment q22-23 of rat chromosome 5. (biologists.org)
  • The "combined" long arm of the newly derived chromosome 4A is assumed to be formed from the long arm of chromosome 4AS itself and a deleted segment 3DL. (deepdyve.com)
  • diploid
  • Each of these chromosome numbers is the so-called diploid number, i.e., the number found in the somatic (body) cells and in the germ cells that give rise to the gametes, or reproductive cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the chromosomes are separated in such a way that each daughter cell receives a haploid (half the diploid) number of chromosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sexually reproducing organisms in both the plant and animal kingdoms begin their development by the fusion of two haploid germ cells and are thus diploid (2 n ), with two sets of chromosomes in each body cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • polymorphism
  • A new Robertsonian fusions in the multiple chromosome polymorphism of a Mediterranean population of Gobius pagamellus (Gobiidae, Perciformes). (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, a B chromosome-specific DNA probe obtained by amplified length polymorphism (AFLP) was hybridized on metaphases of A. alburnus carrying supernumerary B chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • Genotypes for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with the strongest statistical association to sex suggested that wild zebrafish have WZ/ZZ sex chromosomes. (genetics.org)
  • 1983
  • Kerem BS, Goitein R, Richler C, Marcus M, Cedar H (1983) In situ nick-translation distinguishes between active and inactive X chromosomes. (springer.com)
  • whereas
  • R bands are early-replicating, whereas G bands are late-replicating ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • G-band DNA is localized at the nuclear periphery, whereas R-band DNA is in the interior of the nucleus ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The (TTAGGG) n telomeric probe was hybridized with the termini of nearly all chromosomes, whereas the (GATA) n probe did not label any chromosome areas. (springer.com)
  • nuclear
  • The term chromosome is usually reserved for the structure when it is condensed and readily visible during cell division (see mitosis mitosis , process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the carriers of hereditary information, or the chromosomes, are exactly replicated and the two copies distributed to identical daughter nuclei. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During nuclear division, when each chromosome splits, each of the duplicate chromosomes is called a chromatid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When the germ cells divide in the two-step process of meiosis meiosis , process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the number of chromosomes is reduced to half the original number. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mechanism for chromothripsis is unknown, but we previously proposed that it could occur through the physical isolation of chromosomes in aberrant nuclear structures called micronuclei. (nih.gov)
  • Quinacrine
  • The cells were fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1 v/v), then dropped on cold, wet slides which were air-dried before storage at 4 degrees C. The slides were stained to identify the chromosomes by one of the following procedures: (1) Quinacrine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • pattern
  • c-banded prop base II and diplotene kacyotypes revealed a hiqhly heteroaorphic pattern of C-band distribution. (vt.edu)
  • Aha I, Hinf I, or Mbo I treatment produced a C-band pattern, and Eco RII or Hae III produced a G-band plus C-band pattern. (springer.com)