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  • chromosomal
  • Biocide resistance can increase through mutation or elaboration of an endogenous chromosomal gene or by obtaining the resistance characteristics related to extrachromosomal genetic elements by means of transposons or plasmids. (archcid.com)
  • structurally
  • Along with this toxic effect and stress, bacterial cells express some similar defense strategies that can overlap the main functions conferring resistance versus structurally non-related molecules. (archcid.com)
  • transferable
  • Two different patterns of linked transferable resistance were found among the transconjugants. (worldwidescience.org)
  • FC) bacterial population (n = 81) in a waste-fed aquaculturesystem was examined for multiple antibiotic resistance and Wastewater-fed aquaculture provides an opportu- the possession of transferable drug resistance factors (Rfactors). (gotomydoctor.com)
  • Today, transferable drug resistance repre- sents a major threat to the treatment of infectious dis-eases in both humans and animals, including farmed Sampling and dissection fish (Schwartz et al. (gotomydoctor.com)
  • Bacterial
  • Generally, bacterial resistance to biocides is not very common due to the lack of known detoxifying enzymes and target multiplicity inside the cell. (archcid.com)
  • efflux
  • Resistance to these agents is most commonly due to a single base pair deletion in the regulatory region of the mtrCDE locus that results in increased expression of the energy-dependent Mtr efflux pump. (asm.org)
  • Subcloning and sequence analysis showed that, besides β-lactamases, efflux pumps are not only able contribute to carbenicillin resistance but may in fact be sufficient by themselves to convey carbenicillin resistance. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Also, there are several multidrug efflux systems that play an important role in biocides resistance. (archcid.com)
  • inhibitor
  • Wise EMJ, Park JT (1965) Penicillin: its basic site of action as an inhibitor of a peptide cross-linking reaction in the cell wall mucopeptide synthesis. (springer.com)
  • Escherichia
  • Marrec-Fairley M, Piette A, Gallet X et al (2000) Differential functionalities of amphiphilic peptide segments of the cell-septation penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • The first β-lactamase was identified in Escherichia coli prior to the release of penicillin for use in medical practice ( Abraham and Chain, 1940 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • strain
  • When introduced into strain FA19 by transformation, a single base pair deletion in the mtrR promoter sequence from strain FA6140 was sufficient to provide high-level resistance to HAs (e.g., erythromycin and Triton X-100) but only a twofold increase in resistance to penicillin. (asm.org)
  • clinical
  • The introduction of penicillin and streptomycin into clinical use in the 1940s marked the beginning of the golden age of antibiotic discovery. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further studies are needed to establish a correlation between biocide exposure (s) and development of antibiotic resistance, but the number of studies in the clinical or environmental settings is limited. (archcid.com)