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  • Bacterial
  • Ghuysen JM (1988) Bacterial active-site serine penicillin-interactive proteins and domains: mechanism, structure, and evolution. (springer.com)
  • There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. (mdpi.com)
  • The seriousness of the problem of bacterial resistance is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections-only in the EU it affects 25,000 people a year [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Escherichia
  • Spratt BG (1975) Distinct penicillin-binding proteins involved in the division, elongation, and shape of Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • Marrec-Fairley M, Piette A, Gallet X et al (2000) Differential functionalities of amphiphilic peptide segments of the cell-septation penicillin-binding protein 3 of Escherichia coli . (springer.com)
  • The first β-lactamase was identified in Escherichia coli prior to the release of penicillin for use in medical practice ( Abraham and Chain, 1940 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • proteins
  • Spratt BG, PardeeA B (1975) Penicillin-binding proteins and cell shape in E. coli . (springer.com)
  • Zhao G, Meier TI, Kahl SD et al (1999) BOCILLIN FL, a sensitive and commercially available reagent for detection of penicillin-binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • localization of the high molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins during the cell cycle. (springer.com)
  • Frere JM, Nguyen-Disteche M, Coyette J, Joris B (1992) Mode of action: interaction with the penicillin binding proteins. (springer.com)
  • efflux
  • Resistance to these agents is most commonly due to a single base pair deletion in the regulatory region of the mtrCDE locus that results in increased expression of the energy-dependent Mtr efflux pump. (asm.org)
  • MICs
  • In the early 1980s, an outbreak of gonorrhea occurred in the Durham, N.C., region that was caused by a strain (FA6140) for which the MICs of penicillin and tetracycline were both 4.0 μg/ml ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • mechanism
  • Tipper DJ, Strominger JL (1965) Mechanism of action of penicillins: a proposal based on their structural similarity to acyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine. (springer.com)
  • Yocum RR, RasmussenJR SJL (1980) The mechanism of action of penicillin: penicillin acylates the active site of Bacillus stearothermophilus D-alanine carboxypeptidase. (springer.com)