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  • forks
  • ATR responds specifically to stalled replication forks and single-stranded breaks resulting from UV damage while ATM responds directly to double-stranded breaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • An example is the Saccharomyces pombe gene rad9 which arrests the cells in late S/G2 phase in the presence of DNA damage caused by radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • In multicellular organisms genome instability is central to carcinogenesis, and in humans it is also a factor in some neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or the neuromuscular disease myotonic dystrophy. (wikipedia.org)
  • karyotype
  • Usually, all cells in an individual in a given species (plant or animal) show a constant number of chromosomes, which constitute what is known as the karyotype defining this species (see also List of number of chromosomes of various organisms), although some species present a very high karyotypic variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, in a species with a stable karyotype, random variations that modify the normal number of chromosomes may be observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • defective
  • The yeast cells with defective rad9 failed to arrest following radiation, continued cell division and died rapidly while the cells with wild-type rad9 successfully arrested in late S/G2 phase and remained viable. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • For single stranded breaks, replication occurs until the location of the break, then the other strand is nicked to form a double stranded break, which can then be repaired by Break Induced Replication or homologous recombination using the sister chromatid as an error-free template. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • A high frequency of externally caused DNA damage can be one source of genome instability since DNA damages can cause inaccurate translesion synthesis past the damages or errors in repair, leading to mutation. (wikipedia.org)