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  • hydroxide
  • Choline--also known as vitamin B4 or, more formally, as 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethyl ammonium hydroxide--is a common dietary supplement in the livestock and poultry industries. (livestrong.com)
  • fats
  • Choline is one of the "lipotropic" B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight loss. (healthy.net)
  • Lorz also disclosed that the dispersion of choline compounds in fats without reaction and incorporation into the feed may in some instances be accomplished but reported that such preparations are unsatisfactory. (google.com)
  • In addition, supplement manufacturers claim that choline emulsifies fats, keeping them in liquid form so that they are less likely to deposit on the walls of your arteries. (livestrong.com)
  • Choline has fat modifying properties that allow the fats in our body to be converted into energy. (hubpages.com)
  • Without choline, the body is unable to use fats as its source of energy. (hubpages.com)
  • extra choline
  • But for pregnant women, the benefits of extra choline could go far deeper than a mood lift, says Marie Caudill, an associate professor of nutritional sciences and genomics at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y. Like folic acid, choline seems to help prevent neural-tube defects in developing fetuses, and it may also help prevent cleft palates. (latimes.com)
  • When researchers give pregnant rats extra choline, the pups showed impressive memory skills throughout their entire lives. (latimes.com)
  • Caudill says it's too early to say if pregnant women who get extra choline can expect extra-smart children. (latimes.com)
  • According to Caudill, "A dampening of the baby's response to stress as a result of mom consuming extra choline during pregnancy would be expected to reduce the risk of stress-related diseases such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes throughout the life of the child. (emaxhealth.com)
  • methyl
  • A choline that is the parent compound of the cholines class, consisting of ethanolamine having three methyl substituents attached to the amino function. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • choline acts as a methyl donor. (epnet.com)
  • The theory goes like this: Diets lacking sufficient methyl donors (such as choline) may cause an error in RNA or DNA synthesis, leading to a mutated gene and, hypothetically, to cancer initiation. (epnet.com)
  • 1,19 Indeed, in rats fed diets very low in choline and other methyl donors, cancer rates increased. (epnet.com)
  • Choline is also a source of methyl groups, a specific chemical group containing one carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms. (livestrong.com)
  • metabolism
  • Choline is easily absorbed from the intestines and is one of the only vitamins that crosses the blood-brain barrier into the spinal fluid to be involved directly in brain chemical metabolism. (healthy.net)
  • When choline is depleted, fat metabolism and utilization may be decreased, conceivably leading to fat accumulations. (healthy.net)
  • One of the nutritional functions of choline is concerned with the metabolism and transportation of fat. (google.com)
  • Supplementing your diet with choline is necessary for memory, muscle functioning and fat metabolism. (livestrong.com)
  • neural-tube de
  • Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and it is used as a supplement in infant formulas. (webmd.com)
  • During fetal development, choline influences stem cell proliferation and apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, which is essential for brain and spinal cord structure and function, decreasing neural tube defects and increasing memory function. (livestrong.com)
  • Some research has also indicated that choline may have a role in reducing the risk of certain birth defects , specifically neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. (emaxhealth.com)
  • High intake and plasma level of choline in the mother seems to afford reduced risk of neural tube defects. (springer.com)
  • fatty acids
  • The variations include the alcohol, to which the fatty acids and choline phosphate are attached. (dictionary.com)
  • According to this method, a reactable choline compound, i.e. either choline base or a choline salt of an acid weaker than fatty acids, was mixed with fat containing from %-50% free fatty acids and heated until the fat melted whereupon the choline reacted with the fatty acids present in the fat. (google.com)
  • This process provided choline salts of fatty acids dispersed in molten fat, which was then either cooled for use as a feed supplement ingredient, or was mixed directly into dry feed materials in the proper proportion. (google.com)
  • pregnant women
  • The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine recommends that pregnant women take 450 milligrams of choline by mouth daily. (wellness.com)
  • Pregnant women are advised to consume 450 milligrams of choline daily, while breastfeeding women are advised to consume 550 milligrams daily. (wellness.com)
  • It is most probably the reason why milk that are formulated for pregnant women and for babies are supplemented richly with choline. (hubpages.com)
  • The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine set the current recommended intake of choline for women at 425 mg and at 450 mg for pregnant women. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In this study, third-trimester pregnant women consumed either 930 mg or 480 mg of choline. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Nutritional needs change during pregnancy, and the results of this study indicate that pregnant women may need more choline, especially for the future health of their children. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Cereals
  • Cereals that are relatively low in choline, containing less than 14 mg per 100 mg of food, include Cap'n Crunch Peanut Butter Crunch, Kellogg's Rice Krispies, Kellogg's Fruit Loops, Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Kellogg's Cocoa Krispies, regular, quick and instant oatmeal, and Cream of Wheat. (livestrong.com)
  • deficiency
  • There are not any specific symptoms attributed to choline deficiency. (healthy.net)
  • Choline, while closely related to the B complex family of vitamins, is not truely considered a vitamin since researchers cannot agree on any common definitions of deficiency symptoms. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Humans
  • It's not yet clear whether choline has this effect on humans, too, but it can't hurt to get a healthy dose of choline-rich foods. (everything2.com)
  • In humans, choline plays critical roles in fetal development and may be beneficial when taken as a supplement. (livestrong.com)
  • Adults
  • Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or given intravenously (by IV) in appropriate amounts. (webmd.com)
  • adequate
  • The adequate daily intake, or AI, for choline is set by the Institute of Medicine at 550 mg per day. (livestrong.com)
  • With adequate choline in the body, the nerve's communication with each other will be more efficient and the nerve's control of the body's muscles will also become more efficient. (hubpages.com)
  • pregnancy
  • During pregnancy, choline taken by the mother may affect brain development in the growing infant. (wellness.com)
  • Taking choline by mouth before becoming pregnant and during early pregnancy may reduce the risk of cleft palate. (wellness.com)
  • It has already been established that the need for choline during pregnancy is high. (emaxhealth.com)
  • supplement
  • Like many other nutrients, choline is now a commodity in the supplement market. (latimes.com)
  • Physician Formulas also offers choline as one of the main ingredients (along with ginkgo and ginseng) in Mind Power Rx, a supplement that supposedly improves alertness and focus. (latimes.com)
  • The Physician Formulas website claims that "most people who take a choline supplement notice having more mental focus and being more alert. (latimes.com)
  • A choline salt intended for use in animal feeds is usually supplied to the feed manufacturer in the form of a choline feed supplement prepared by mixing the choline salt with one or more of the dry ingredients of the feed preparation to act as a carrier. (google.com)
  • The choline supplement is advantageously shipped and stored in paper bags. (google.com)
  • It has been discovered that a choline feed supplement containing a choline salt composition consisting essentially of a choline salt and a fat is resistant to caking following moisture absorption. (google.com)
  • It has also been discovered that a combination of a choline salt and a fat, prepared by deposition from a liquid medium which is at least a solvent for the fat, is resistant to caking, due to moisture absorption when employed with a carrier in a choline feed supplement. (google.com)
  • Choline can only be used as a supplement and has no therapeutic claims. (hubpages.com)
  • diet
  • The average diet provides about 500 mg to 1,000 mg of choline per day. (epnet.com)
  • 1,2,12-15 But these diets are contrived: One would have to work very hard to get so little choline in the diet! (epnet.com)
  • Some research indicates that women who consume a lot of choline in their diet around the time of conception have a lower risk of having babies with a neural tube defect, compared to women with lower intake. (webmd.com)
  • Avoidance of choline in your diet is advised if suffering from TMAU, notes the Office of Rare Diseases Research. (livestrong.com)
  • Some animals cannot produce choline, but must have it in their diet to stay healthy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Can Early Signs And Symptoms Be Detected If A Person Needs A High Choline Diet? (hubpages.com)
  • Hepatotoxicity and endothelial dysfunction induced by high choline diet and the protective effects of phloretin in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)