• Exposure of Jurkat cells to cholera toxin for 3 hr inhibited these receptor-mediated events and led to a selective, partial loss of the antigen receptor complex from the cellular surface. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that a cholera toxin substrate can regulate signal transduction by the T-cell antigen receptor. (pnas.org)
  • The pertussis toxin (also an AB5 protein) produced by Bordetella pertussis acts in a similar manner with the exception that it ADP-ribosylates the Gαi subunit, rendering it inactive and unable to inhibit adenylyl cyclase production of cAMP (leading to constitutive production). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pertussis toxin is different where its pentameric ring is made up of four different protein components, where one of the components is repeated to form a heteropentamer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. (nih.gov)
  • Throughout this tutorial, I will attempt to highlight the structural aspects of cholera toxin that are directly related to its function and infectious nature. (davidson.edu)
  • clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium , including those causing botulism ( botulinus toxin ), gas gangrene ( gas gangrene toxin ), and tetanus ( tetanus toxin ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • botulinal toxin ( botulinum toxin ) ( botulinus toxin ) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum, neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The main objective of our project is to develop new dual-site ligands for cholera toxin inhibition featuring 2 pharmacophoric fragments, a GM1 mimic and a blood group mimic, connected across a linker able to span the two binding sites of enterotoxins. (europa.eu)
  • This project is connected to the activities of the COST D34/001/05 WG, working on cholera toxin inhibition and sensing. (europa.eu)
  • PA protein forms the central part of the complete anthrax toxin, and translocates the A moiety into host cells after assembling as a heptamer in the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, Krengel´s group has identified a second binding site, which appears to be present in the close CT congener LT and in CT from the El Tor strain, responsible for the current cholera pandemic. (europa.eu)
  • The cytopathic effect of cholera holotoxin (CT) on Vero cells was neutralized by serum from mice immunized with transgenic potato tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Cholera affects an estimated 3-5 million people worldwide and causes 28,800-130,000 deaths a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is another example of an AB toxin that targets the eukaryotic elongation factor 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A subunit of an AB5 toxin is the portion responsible for catalysis of specific targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of cultured rodent neural stem cells with cholera toxin induces changes in the localization of the transcription factor Hes3 and increases their numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of five separate binding sites in one molecule of toxin suggests that cholera toxin is highly efficient in recognition of target cells. (davidson.edu)
  • The purpose of the current study was to characterize the intracellular distribution and transport of GM1 in NPC cells, by using cholera toxin (CT) as a probe. (pnas.org)
  • All of these toxins share a similar structure and mechanism for entering targeted host cells. (wikipedia.org)