• Background: Decisions about the use of killed oral cholera vaccines, which confer moderate levels of direct protection to vaccinees, can depend on whether the vaccines also provide indirect (herd) protection when high levels of vaccine coverage are attained. (elsevier.com)
  • We calculated whether there was an inverse, monotonic trend for the relation between the level of vaccine coverage in a residential cluster and the incidence of cholera in individual vaccine recipients or placebo recipients residing in the cluster after controlling for potential confounding variables. (elsevier.com)
  • 1833. Instruction regarding the prevention of cholera, including recommendations not to drink alcohol, avoid raw foods, and dress warmly. (ha.com)
  • Cholera bacteria spread from one person to another in places where sanitation is poor and there is limited access to safe drinking water. (cdc.gov)
  • Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is one reason why cholera is rare in countries with good sanitation systems. (kidshealth.org)
  • But for people living in places without good sanitation, cholera is more of a risk. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera epidemics can also sometimes happen after a disaster (like an earthquake or flood) if people are living in tent cities or other places without running water or proper sanitation systems. (kidshealth.org)
  • Risk factors contributing to the propagation of cholera to other provinces and districts in this outbreak include a shortage of potable water and contamination of household drinking water, which emphasize the need to improve access to clean water, adequate hygiene, and sanitation. (who.int)
  • Over the last century, the number of cholera cases and deaths due to cholera have steadily declined, mainly due to improvements in sanitation and water hygiene. (news-medical.net)
  • Lack of sanitation and clean water make cholera spread. (cnn.com)
  • Cholera bacteria enter the body through the mouth, often in food or water that has been contaminated with human waste, due to poor sanitation and hygiene. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A doctor may suspect cholera if a patient has severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, and rapid dehydration, especially if they have recently traveled to a place that has a recent history of cholera, or poor sanitation, or if they have recently consumed shellfish. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The mainstays of control of cholera consist of provision of clean water and adequate sanitation, appropriate rehydration therapy of cholera patients, and antibiotics for severely affected patients. (pnas.org)
  • Pandemic cholera last stalked the world in the 1960s, although the disease still erupts among refugees or in war zones where sanitation and medical infrastructure have broken down. (france24.com)
  • Our medical system, as well as our water and sanitation programs, are such that we are not going to see cholera spreading in the United States the way it is in Haiti. (cnn.com)
  • Mr Andrus warned there could be an "upsurge" in cholera cases in Haiti in the coming days as a result of water and sanitation problems caused by Hurricane Tomas at the end of last week. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Mr Medrano says the best chance for cholera eradication lies with a $2.27 billion UN fund-raising campaign that would help fund a proper water and sanitation infrastructure, among other things. (economist.com)
  • Although cholera may be life-threatening, prevention of the disease is normally straightforward if proper sanitation practices are followed. (crystalinks.com)
  • In developed countries, due to nearly universal advanced water treatment and sanitation practices, cholera is no longer a major health threat. (crystalinks.com)
  • The last major outbreak of cholera in the United States occurred in 1910 1911 Effective sanitation practices, if instituted and adhered to in time, are usually sufficient to stop an epidemic. (crystalinks.com)
  • Cholera is a serious and sometimes life-threatening infection that mainly affects people in developing countries, where clean water and other sanitation measures are hard to come by. (rchsd.org)
  • Thanks to water treatment and sanitation practices, Cholera is no longer a major health threat in developed countries, but it has been known to spread through seafood, and it is still very much an issue in other countries. (prezi.com)
  • Doctors Without Borders has plans to set up a field hospital in Saint-Marc in order to treat cholera patients and Oxfam said it sent five emergency specialists to Artibonite to "set up water, sanitation and hygiene programs for an estimated 100,000 people. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Cholera remains common in places with poor sanitation systems or where they do not yet exist. (globalissues.org)
  • In tropical countries lacking fully developed water and sanitation infrastructure, the soil and untreated groundwater hosts cholera bacteria that can contaminate public water supplies. (globalissues.org)
  • Atlanta, Georgia (CNN) -- The cholera epidemic already blamed for more than 1,100 deaths in Haiti could worsen because of poor sanitation in the earthquake-ravaged country, U.S. medical researchers reported Thursday. (cnn.com)
  • The water safety and sanitation systems in Haiti were weak be before the earthquake and made weaker by the earthquake, so conditions are ripe for the further spread of cholera,' Tappero told CNN. (cnn.com)
  • The way to prevent acquiring cholera when sanitation is poor is to take your water from a clean water source or treat water yourself in the home, and use good sanitary practices with clean water when preparing and cooking food,' Tappero said. (cnn.com)
  • Cholera occurs mainly in developing countries with inadequate sanitation and lack of clean drinking water and in areas where infrastructure may have broken down due to war or natural disasters. (tripprep.com)
  • On 27 October 2017, the Ministry of Health in Mozambique notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera. (who.int)
  • In October 2010, at least 250 people in Haiti died in an outbreak of cholera, almost 10 months after a major earthquake devastated the country, killing more than 200,000 people. (cbc.ca)
  • Iraq's Kurdistan region has declared a sate of emergency (file) (AFP) August 30, 2007 (RFE/RL) -- Iraqi health officials say at least eight people have died from an outbreak of cholera in the war-torn country's northern provinces. (rferl.org)
  • Othman told RFE/RL's Radio Free Iraq August 27 that doctors immediately suspected an outbreak of cholera when patients began arriving at the beginning of August. (rferl.org)
  • An outbreak of cholera in Haiti has claimed more than 100 lives and infected least 1,500 people. (france24.com)
  • Kiona N. Smith, Ars Technica , "Mercury and algal blooms poisoned Maya reservoirs at Tikal," 30 June 2020 An outbreak of cholera in India in 1831 claimed thousands of pilgrims' lives on their way to perform hajj. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Just months after a devastating earthquake hit Haiti in 2010, an outbreak of Cholera followed, claiming the lives of thousands. (msnbc.com)
  • Sierra Leone's worst recorded outbreak of cholera risks sparking a wider health crisis unless its causes can be tackled more aggressively, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) said on Thursday," the news service writes, adding, "The death toll in Sierra Leone is likely to rise further in coming weeks towards the late-September peak of the rainy season" (Akam, 8/23). (kff.org)
  • Freetown - An outbreak of cholera in West Africa has infected more than 13 000 people and killed at least 258 people in Sierra Leone and Guinea, authorities said as they appealed for international assistance. (news24.com)
  • This current outbreak of cholera has the potential to be devastating and is proving very difficult to control," said Amanda McClelland, IFRC emergency health coordinator. (news24.com)
  • Pathogenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae have the ability to produce cholera toxin, a type of enterotoxin that affects intestinal cells. (britannica.com)
  • It gets attached to the microvilli of the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract where it multiplies and produce a potent enterotoxin known as cholera toxin. (medindia.net)
  • Cholera toxin is responsible for increased secretion of water and electrolytes in stools from the intestinal cells leading to dehydration, shock, acidosis and death. (medindia.net)
  • The differences are 203 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the absence of three genomic islands, and an increased number of tandem cholera toxin prophage (CTX) arrays. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The three provinces which have reported cholera cases in this outbreak have been severely affected by the flooding which has resulted in the displacement of people and damage to the infrastructure, including health facilities. (who.int)
  • A new surge in the disease has produced roughly 150,000 reported cholera cases and nearly 300 deaths since the start of this year. (nypost.com)
  • The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said there has been a spike in reported cholera cases since mid-July and the onset of the rainy season. (news24.com)
  • Cholera spread across Yemen in late 2016 and throughout much of 2017 and 2018. (nypost.com)
  • A health worker attends to a child suffering from cholera symptoms at a local hospital in Harare, Tuesday, Sept, 11, 2018. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Patients await treatment at a makeshift cholera clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe, September 11, 2018. (yahoo.com)
  • President Edgar Lungu had directed the military to help fight the spread of cholera under emergency measures to contain the waterborne disease. (reuters.com)
  • LUSAKA (Reuters) - Zambia on Sunday relaxed rules imposed to curb the spread of cholera as the number of new cases being reported has halved, Health Minister Chitalu Chilufya said. (reuters.com)
  • Humanitarian organisations assisting Zimbabwean refugees in Musina have warned that the closure of the showground -- a large open field near the border where 3 000 to 4 000 Zimbabweans queue to apply for asylum and seek refuge at night -- could worsen the spread of cholera and other diseases. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • HARARE (Reuters) - Zimbabwe's police on Wednesday issued a ban on all public gatherings and illegal food vending to control the spread of cholera, which has killed 21 people in the capital Harare. (yahoo.com)
  • Cholera is mostly found in the tropics - in particular Asia, Africa, Latin America, India, and the Middle East. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cholera has often risen to epidemic proportions in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, particularly in India and Bangladesh . (britannica.com)
  • JOHANNESBURG, South Africa (CNN) -- The political crisis that has gripped Zimbabwe for nearly a year may be drawing to an end, but a deadly cholera outbreak there is only getting worse. (cnn.com)
  • When traveling to Asia, Africa and some parts of Latin America, however, people need to protect themselves against cholera by having the appropriate vaccinations beforehand, drinking only water that is boiled or from a sealed bottle and following good handwashing practices. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cholera cases also have been reported in neighboring Botswana and South Africa, prompting U.N. officials to warn the outbreak is taking on a dangerous regional dimension. (voanews.com)
  • This comprehensive compilation, written by eminent international researchers reviews the epidemiology of cholera in Africa, Asia, Russia and Latin Americas. (springer.com)
  • Ken Chitwood, Quartz Africa , "Saudi's Hajj cancellation for Covid-19 is not the first time a plague has disrupted Muslims' pilgrimage," 25 June 2020 More than 4,000 people died in a cholera outbreak at the height of the southern African country's economic problems in 2008. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Cholera is mainly found in Africa, south Asia, and Latin America. (massgeneral.org)
  • However, as a result of improved transportation, more persons from the United States travel to parts of Latin America, Africa, or Asia where epidemic cholera is occurring. (cdc.gov)
  • That is why cholera is considered epidemic in places like Africa, Latin America and South Asia. (globalissues.org)
  • Cholera affects an estimated 3-5 million people worldwide and causes 28,800-130,000 deaths a year. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were 2,616 new cases of cholera in the plague stricken districts yesterday, and 1,039 deaths from the disease for the same time. (nytimes.com)
  • T he WHO reported 25 deaths from cholera on May 8 but the number had spiked to 51 by May 11 and experts fear the outbreak could spread and become increasingly deadly if it is not contained. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The point here is that cholera deaths are preventable, and we are doing everything we can to assist the Haitian authorities to prevent further deaths," Bragg said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • There are an estimated three to five million cholera cases every year, with about 100,000 to 120,000 deaths. (france24.com)
  • Sierra Leone's health ministry said Thursday that deaths from a cholera outbreak had reached 220, affecting over 12,000 people in the west African nation, which is struggling to curb the disease," Agence France-Presse reports. (kff.org)
  • Since the end of November, MSF has recorded a total of 826 cholera cases and 32 deaths. (news24.com)
  • With more than 1,000 deaths from cholera, Haitians are directing anger at UN peacekeeping forces whom many suspect of having introduced the disease. (csmonitor.com)
  • Cholera is surging once more in Yemen, with more than 76,000 suspected new cases and 195 deaths in March, double the number in the previous two months, according to U.N. figures. (yahoo.com)
  • There have since been more than one million suspected cases of cholera in Yemen, and 2,275 recorded deaths, the WHO says. (timesofmalta.com)
  • But it's very cool science -- and in the case of cholera, it just might help science deal with a pathogen that, while mostly controlled, still causes thousands of deaths a year. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Save the Children said in August that children under 15 represent nearly half of new cases and a third of deaths, with malnourished children more than six times more likely to die of cholera than well-fed ones. (iran-daily.com)
  • LONDON (AP) - The coronavirus pandemic is interrupting immunization against diseases including measles, polio and cholera that could put the lives of nearly 80 million children under the age of 1 at risk, according to a new analysis from the World Health Organization and partners. (ap.org)
  • The World Health Organization says on its website that 'cholera is an extremely virulent disease. (france24.com)
  • GENEVA (Reuters) - Yemen's cholera outbreak has infected 612,703 people and killed 2,048 since it began in April, and some districts are still reporting sharp rises in new cases, data from the World Health Organization and Yemen's health ministry showed on Tuesday. (reuters.com)
  • It's the second cholera outbreak in 6 months, and the World Health Organization says around 250,000 people -- half of them children -- have been sickened in what is now the world's largest cholera outbreak. (cbsnews.com)
  • That is why the World Health Organization (WHO) records around 150,000 cholera cases per year. (globalissues.org)
  • What Causes Cholera? (kidshealth.org)
  • What causes cholera in a child? (massgeneral.org)
  • The first item -- the pathogen that causes cholera -- is about a micron wide and couple of microns long and it's everywhere. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Please consult the current CDC Cholera page for current cholera treatment recommendations. (cdc.gov)
  • Epidemic cholera occurs unpredictably against a background of no or little natural immunity in the populations at risk. (pnas.org)
  • Often arriving in the wake of humanitarian emergencies, epidemic cholera tends to affect children and adults equally. (pnas.org)
  • In January 1991, epidemic cholera appeared in South America and quickly spread to several countries. (cdc.gov)
  • however, only two serogroups of V. cholerae -O1 and O139 (sometimes called the Bengal serogroup)-are known to cause cholera. (britannica.com)
  • Less commonly, the bacteria that cause cholera are found in brackish rivers and coastal waters. (rchsd.org)
  • People with more severe cases of cholera may need to stay in the hospital and get intravenous (IV) fluids. (kidshealth.org)
  • Even people with severe cases of cholera recover fully in a week or so if they get medical care. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some people with cholera have no signs or symptoms, but some cases are severe and can be life-threatening. (kidshealth.org)
  • Priorities at this stage are to strengthen the surveillance system, and harmonizing cholera data collection and line listing of the cases, as well as putting in place a mechanism for active case finding at the community level. (who.int)
  • In addition, the cholera case definition should be strictly applied to all suspected cases to decrease underreporting and to improve case detection in this outbreak. (who.int)
  • Antibiotic treatment , which reduces fluid requirements and duration of illness, is indicated for severe cases of cholera. (cdc.gov)
  • In England for example, no cases of cholera have originated in the country since 1893 and those that have been reported have been caught abroad. (news-medical.net)
  • Cholera cases have now been reported in all of the country's provinces, the MSF report said. (cnn.com)
  • By 1923, cholera had receded from most of the world, although many cases were still present in India. (cbc.ca)
  • Snow carefully mapped the cases of cholera in the Soho area in London and traced the source to a water pump. (cbc.ca)
  • After convincing officials to remove the pump handle, the number of cholera cases in the area immediately declined. (cbc.ca)
  • Severe cases of cholera require intravenous fluid replacement. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For information on cases of non-toxigenic cholera, see Vibriosis . (kingcounty.gov)
  • They say another 4,000 suspected cholera cases are being treated. (rferl.org)
  • Around 2,752 suspected cases of cholera have been detected in Yemen since late April, according to the WHO. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • WHO is in full emergency mode to contain the recent upsurge of suspected cholera cases," said Dr Nevio Zagaria, the WHO's representative in Yemen. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • No specific number of cholera cases in Port-au-Prince was given. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The PAHO said that while no cases of cholera have been reported in the neighbouring Dominican Republican, the outbreak has prompted the Haitian government "to mobilise a contingency plan in the border area, while the border remains open. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In some cases, treatment centers for people who had contracted cholera existed only on paper even though the UN had disbursed money to bankroll their operations, according to two aid officials familiar with the centers. (nypost.com)
  • All confirmed cases of cholera must be reported to local health officials. (rchsd.org)
  • Save the Children, a charity running cholera treatment centres, said last Friday that suspected cases in Hodeidah governorate had jumped by 40 percent in three weeks amid heavy rains and a heatwave, and in some districts weekly caseloads were double their previous peaks. (reuters.com)
  • In many cases of hog-cholera, mixed infections in the lungs and in the intestines are common. (dictionary.com)
  • We reached the peak in week one (first week of January) when we exceeded 200 cases of cholera," before falling back to 150 cases in the third week in the capital, said Doctor Maria Mashako, an assistant medical co-ordinator. (news24.com)
  • Newser) - Cholera cases have spiked in Baghdad since mid-November and will likely soar when rainy season comes, the Guardian reports. (newser.com)
  • Doctors Without Borders says that since Oct. 22, they have treated 16,500 people for suspected cholera, with the highest number treated in the Artibonite region, where the first cases originated. (csmonitor.com)
  • SANAA, Yemen (AP) - Cholera is surging once again in Yemen, with the U.N. reporting that the number of suspected cases has doubled in March over previous months and doctors in overwhelmed health facilities fearing it could rival a 2017 outbreak that spiraled into the world's worst flare-up. (yahoo.com)
  • Tents set up at Alsabeen hospital in Sana'a Yemen for screening suspected cholera cases. (globalissues.org)
  • 100 cases of cholera in the previous calendar year, or 3) have not reported cholera but where experts believe cholera exists. (cdc.gov)
  • Most cholera cases in developed countries are a result of transmission by food, while in the developing world it is more often water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also called Asiatic cholera . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Asiatic cholera has been treated and carefully observed by a number of homoeopathic physicians. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Extracts from letters from Vienna, concerning the character of the Asiatic cholera, and its homoeopathic treatment. (chestofbooks.com)
  • Homoeopathic treatment of the Asiatic cholera. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The most important step in treating cholera is to replace lost body fluids (rehydration). (cdc.gov)
  • Cholera is especially responsive to proper rehydration with or without a single dose of an appropriate antibiotic. (tripprep.com)
  • The risk of cholera epidemic is highest when poverty, wa. (yahoo.com)
  • Paho said it was also on "high alert" over the risk of cholera spreading to the neighbouring Dominican Republic and has sent experts to prepare for a possible outbreak in that country. (bbc.co.uk)
  • We have every reason to expect that the widespread flooding has increased the risk of cholera spreading. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The hurricane has created a new set of dangers because in the communities affected the risk of cholera is high," he warned. (yahoo.com)
  • A cholera outbreak in Yemen is gaining momentum, adding to the misery of the Arab world's poorest country which is already wracked by war and on the brink of famine. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • We are very concerned with the re-emergence of cholera across several areas of Yemen in the past couple of weeks. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The spike, which comes two years after Yemen suffered its worst cholera outbreak, was concentrated in six governorates including in the Red Sea port of Hodeida and Sanaa province, both combat zones, it said. (yahoo.com)
  • Both the Houthis and the government of Yemen were trying to politicize cholera," an aid official told the AP. (nypost.com)
  • A woman holds her son who is suspected of being infected with cholera at a cholera treatment center in Sanaa, Yemen, May 15, 2017. (reuters.com)
  • One of the latest victims of the cholera epidemic that has killed more than 2,000 people in Yemen had yet to even take her first breath. (iran-daily.com)
  • Cholera was first seen to spread as a pandemic to different parts of the world from the Indian subcontinent in 1817. (news-medical.net)
  • The discovery of a new species of the cholera bacteria (O139) in Bangladesh in 1992, which has since been detected in 11 countries, has raised the possibility and fear of an eighth pandemic. (cbc.ca)
  • Dan Chiasson, The New York Review of Books , "Pandemic Journal," 15 May 2020 An 1849 cholera outbreak in London killed more than 10,000 people in three months. (merriam-webster.com)
  • One of them is available for adults in the U.S. Very few Americans need it, because most people do not visit areas that have an active cholera outbreak. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In July 2020, this document was updated to remove one country considered to have areas of active cholera transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • This will enable us to contain cholera, typhoid and whatever is going on. (smh.com.au)
  • The cholera adds to what is already the world's worst humanitarian crisis. (yahoo.com)
  • LUSAKA (Reuters) - A cholera outbreak in Zambia which killed 114 people and made more than 5,000 others sick over eight months has been contained, Health Minister Chitalu Chilufya said on Friday. (reuters.com)
  • About 9,300 people have died of cholera and 800,000 have been affected since the outbreak in 2010. (yahoo.com)
  • Authorities in the Zimbabwe capital, Harare, are offering free graves to families of cholera victims. (voanews.com)
  • Alston was addressing a General Assembly committee as the United Nations prepared to roll out an aid package of about $200 million to help the families of cholera victims. (yahoo.com)
  • 1991. Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1991, 100 years after cholera was vanquished from South America, there was an outbreak in Peru that spread across the continent, killing 10,000 people. (cbc.ca)
  • Speaking to the AP on Friday, WHO spokesman Christian Lindmeier said rates of cholera fatality overall this year are still lower than in 2017, but the situation is exacerbated because of the early rains and because "infrastructure is more destroyed than it used to be. (yahoo.com)