• Combinations of these ions-sodium and chloride, for example-form salts, and salinity is another term commonly used to describe the dissolved solids content of water. (usgs.gov)
  • The chloride ions react with the acid of the extraction liquid in an electrochemical reaction. (geneq.com)
  • A DC voltage is applied over the cell with the negative terminal connected to the reservoir containing the NaCl solution and the positive to the NaOH solution, causing the negatively charged chloride ions to migrate towards the positive terminal. (geneq.com)
  • Although the resting muscle chloride conductance largely exceeds the resting potassium conductance, chloride ions do not contribute to the resting membrane potential under physiological conditions. (rupress.org)
  • In many instances, the service life of concrete in a given environment is controlled by the resistance it presents to the ingress of deleterious materials such as chloride or sulfate ions [ 1 ]. (nist.gov)
  • It should be pointed out that we are only attempting to estimate the steady-state diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in a concrete and are not accounting for the chloride binding and reaction with the aluminate phases present in the cement paste. (nist.gov)
  • An alternative approach to the heap leaching of copper sulfide minerals involves the use of chloride ions as the lixiviant. (edu.au)
  • The facile oxidation of copper(I) ions in a chloride system by atmospheric oxygen offers an alternative to bio-oxidation of iron(II) in the sulfate system. (edu.au)
  • In the chloride system, it is well-known that both copper(II) and iron(III) ions can act as the oxidants for these minerals. (edu.au)
  • However, in the chloride system, re-oxidation of copper(I) and iron(II) ions can only economically be achieved by chemical reaction with dissolved oxygen. (edu.au)
  • It will be shown that this reaction can be described in terms of the rapid equilibrium Fe(II) + Cu(II) ⇆ Fe(III) + Cu(I) followed by relatively rapid auto-oxidation of copper(I). The inhibiting effect of iron(III) ions in terms of the above equilibrium is demonstrated and the effects of acidity and chloride ion concentration on the rate described. (edu.au)
  • The salts of hydrochloric acid H Cl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides . (chemeurope.com)
  • Chloride ions have important physiological roles. (chemeurope.com)
  • Mediates the efficient absorption of chloride ions in the colon, participating in fluid homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that transports chloride ions across the cell membrane in exchange for bicarbonate ions. (nih.gov)
  • The Edu-Logger chloride sensor is used to measure the concentration of chloride ions (Cl-) in aqueous samples. (edulab.com)
  • Chloride binding is an interaction between hydration products and chloride ions. (freethesaurus.com)
  • com)-- Sodium chloride or NaCI is an ionic compound with the chemical formula representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Background: GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Barium chloride dihydrate is the hydrated crystalline form of barium chloride, the barium salt of hydrochloric acid. (reference.com)
  • Chloride is also part of hydrochloric acid (HCL) which is utilized in the stomach to breakdown food. (nursing.com)
  • Cadmium chloride and sulphate were patch-tested in human volunteers but, across several studies, the evidence remained inconclusive. (europa.eu)
  • Positive patch-test reactions to cadmium chloride and sulphate in human volunteers are summarised by Wahlberg (1977). (europa.eu)
  • Ammonium Chloride, Tetra Butyl Ammonium Hydrogen Sulphate, Tetra Butyl Ammonium Iodide, Tetra Butyl Ammonium Hydroxide 4. (needsinfo.com)
  • Will high levels of chloride cause problems with the uptake of other mineral nutrients, such as K+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ or is it that just sodium? (barrreport.com)
  • If you've been vomiting or have lost fluids because of diarrhea, you may have lower levels of chloride. (umassmemorial.org)
  • What would cause Increased Levels of Chloride? (nursing.com)
  • Both forms of copper chloride have a chemical formula of one copper atom attached ionically to two atoms of chlorine. (reference.com)
  • As sodium chloride contains charged particles, only the state of the chemical matters when considering its ability to conduct electricity. (reference.com)
  • When you are using this chemical, please be cautious about it as the following: Undecanoyl chloride may cause burns and react violently with water. (guidechem.com)
  • The molecular structure of different species of cuprous chloride from gas-phase electron diffraction and quantum chemical calculations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The chloride content of this diet was .005 percent as determined by chemical analysis. (unl.edu)
  • An example is table salt, which is sodium chloride with the chemical formula NaCl. (chemeurope.com)
  • The word chloride can also refer to a chemical compound in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded in the molecule . (chemeurope.com)
  • Chloride is a chemical your body needs for metabolism (the process of turning the food you eat into energy). (chemeurope.com)
  • Chloride is also a useful and reliable chemical indicator of river / groundwater faecal contamination, as chloride is a non-reactive solute and ubiquitous to sewage. (chemeurope.com)
  • Poly Aluminium Chloride short for PAC is a new type high performance inorganic macromolecule flocculating agent and its hydrolysis products of AlCl3 and Al OH 3 The poly aluminium chloride is freely soluble into water and has quite strong adsorptivity many physic chemical reaction such as sedimentation adsorption. (akdchemical.nl)
  • Poly aluminium chloride PAC is a new type high efficiency inorganic polymer coagulant adopting advanced manufacturing technique and quality raw material show the features of low impurity high molecula weight and superior coagulating effect Company profile Established in 1999 located in Yanzhou Chemical Industrial Park. (akdchemical.nl)
  • The chlorine source may be provided in the form of Cl 2 gas, hydrogen chloride or a chlorinated hydrocarbon. (google.com)
  • The simplest example of an inorganic covalently-bonded chloride is hydrogen chloride , HCl. (chemeurope.com)
  • BritannicaFeb 14, 2020 - It vaporizes without melting at 340 °C (644 °F) to form equal volumes of ammonia and hydrogen chloride. (keywords-monitoring-success.com)
  • Specific functions of the chloride ion to be discussed in this thesis include: (1) regulation of osmotic pressure, (2) involvement in the chloride shifts reaction, (3) the major anion of gastric juice and (2) an important role in acid-base balance. (unl.edu)
  • are they talking about sodium chloride or just the anion? (barrreport.com)
  • Linking muscle chloride channels to one of the first known ion channelopathies and the identification of a role of anion channels in cellular excitability raised the interest of the ion channel community on this class of channels. (rupress.org)
  • In order to characterise Muc5ac and Muc5b, four tracheal wash samples from horses showing signs of mucus hypersecretion were pooled, solubilised in 4M guanidinium chloride and analysed by caesium chloride density gradient centrifugation (buoyant density), anion exchange chromatography (charge distribution) and rate-zonal sedimentation (size distribution). (nih.gov)
  • The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl − . (chemeurope.com)
  • Chloride (Cl - ), an anion found in the blood, works together with sodium to help maintain oncotic pressure and water balance in the body. (nursing.com)
  • A method for the production of vinyl chloride monomer by catalytic oxychlorination of ethane wherein HCl is supplied in excess of the stiochiometric requirement for chlorine in the reaction. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a process for the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) from ethane via oxychlorination of ethane. (google.com)
  • Market Size, Company Share, Price Trends, Capacity Forecasts of All Active and Planned Plants", provides in-depth coverage of Saudi Arabia's Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) industry and presents major market trends. (freethesaurus.com)
  • In the glacial aquifer system, chloride concentration were highest in shallow groundwater beneath urban areas, reflecting the use of deicing salt and the many other manmade sources of chloride in urban and suburban areas. (usgs.gov)
  • Prediction is based on a one-dimensional finite difference solution of Fick's second law of diffusion, with a variable external chloride concentration and a two-layer representation of the concrete. (nist.gov)
  • Cellular chloride concentration was monitored with the use of the indicator, 6-methoxy-N-ethylquinolinium chloride (MEQ). (nih.gov)
  • At least one of the three-chloride, dissolved solids, or nitrate-had a statistically significant increase in concentration in 66 percent of the networks. (usgs.gov)
  • Chloride/bromide mass concentration ratios and the proximity of a former landfill and sewage lagoon upstream indicate a likely source of Cl - is landfill leachate and possibly sewage leachate. (usgs.gov)
  • The determination of the chloride ion concentration in concrete is essential in assessing the need for maintenance on, for example, bridge decks and parking structures. (geneq.com)
  • With this method, the concentration of acid soluble chlorides is measured. (geneq.com)
  • In most cases, this is equivalent to total chloride concentration. (geneq.com)
  • A uniquely designed instrument converts the voltage generated by the chloride concentration and sensor into a reading for the user. (geneq.com)
  • The instrument automatically applies the temperature correction and it shows the chloride concentration on a LCD display percentage by weight. (geneq.com)
  • These initial values give a valuable indicator of the current chloride concentration values. (geneq.com)
  • Data are expressed as the mean±SD (n=6-9 independent experiments in triplicate), indicating the relative increase or decrease in chloride concentration. (nih.gov)
  • 11 g of the sample into 100 mL of methylene chloride to create an 1100-ppm stock solution and serially diluting the stock to create standards bracketing the concentration of the samples. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Consequently, for instance, in an application such as addition of a vinylidene chloride latex to a mortar, there has been adopted a countermeasure of using a nonionic surfactant together with an anionic one to prevent agglomeration due to inorganic electrolytes. (google.com)
  • The invention relates to supports comprising inorganic oxide particles coated with magnesium chloride and a method for making them. (google.com)
  • The inorganic oxide has a mean particle diameter of less than 5 microns and is used as a seed to crystallize magnesium chloride from solution. (google.com)
  • Zirconium(IV) chloride , also known as zirconium tetrachloride , is the inorganic compound with the formula ZrCl 4 . (chemeurope.com)
  • This means that chlorides can be either inorganic or organic compounds . (chemeurope.com)
  • Poly aluminium chloride PAC is a new type high efficiency inorganic polymer coagulant adopting advanced manufacturing technique and quality raw material show the features of low impurity high molecula weight and superior coagulating effect I Poly Aluminium Chloride Properties 1 Its dosage lower than aluminum sulfate. (akdchemical.nl)
  • Much cheaper than the other ammonium chloride powders Ammonium chloride - WikipediaAmmonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. (keywords-monitoring-success.com)
  • Mineralization of 14C-radiolabled vinyl chloride ([1,2-14C] VC) and cis-dichloroethene ([1,2-14C] cis-DCE) under hypoxic (initial dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations about 0.1 mg/L) and nominally anoxic (DO minimum detection limit = 0.01 mg/L) was examined in chloroethene-exposed sediments from two groundwater and two surface water sites. (usgs.gov)
  • For the statistical analysis of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations at the network level, more than half revealed no statistically significant change over the decadal period. (usgs.gov)
  • Statistically significant increases of chloride concentrations were identified for 43 percent of 56 networks. (usgs.gov)
  • Statistically significant decreases in concentrations were identified in 4 percent of the networks for chloride, 2 percent of the networks for dissolved solids, and 9 percent of the networks for nitrate. (usgs.gov)
  • A larger percentage of urban land-use networks had statistically significant increases in chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations than agricultural land-use networks. (usgs.gov)
  • Although chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations were typically less than the drinking-water standards and guidelines, a statistical test was used to determine whether or not the proportion of samples exceeding the drinking-water standard or guideline changed significantly between the first and second full-network sampling events. (usgs.gov)
  • Chloride (Cl - ) concentrations and loads and other water chemistry characteristics were assessed to evaluate potential effects of road-deicer applications on streamwater quality in four watersheds along Interstate 95 (I-95) in southeastern Connecticut from November 1, 2008, through September 30, 2011. (usgs.gov)
  • Chloride concentrations varied considerably in shallow groundwater as a result of land-use differences. (usgs.gov)
  • In addition to Hg2+ and Cu+, nanomolar concentrations of Tl3+, but not Tl+, were able to generate a pH gradient (internally acidic) when an inwardly directed chloride gradient was established. (aspetjournals.org)
  • No effect was observed either in the absence of Tl3+ or when Tl3+ was added (a) in the presence of chelating agents, reducing chemicals, or thiol compounds, (b) with identical intra- and extravesicular chloride concentrations, or (c) in the absence of chloride. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, Tl3+ was able to dissipate a pH gradient across the membrane for identical intra- and extravesicular chloride concentrations and to increase the chloride permeability in response to a pH gradient. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Increased rates of uptake were observed at higher temperatures and lower chloride concentrations due to the decreased stability of AuCI4-, the major gold(IIl) species present. (edu.au)
  • The only skin sensitization study that could be found was a guinea-pig maximization test (GMPT) conducted with water soluble cadmium chloride, which indicated no contact sensitisation following epicutaneous exposure at concentrations up to 0.5% after intradermal or topical sensitisation (Wahlberg and Boman, 1979). (europa.eu)
  • We are Exporting, Manufacturing, Supplying and Trading a best grade array of Ferrous Chloride in Vapi, Gujarat, India which has a variety of niche applications, but the related compounds ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride enjoy more applications. (tradeindia.com)
  • Being amongst well known organizations, we are engaged in manufacturing, supplying and exporting a wide array of Magnesium Chloride Flakes in Rajkot, Gujarat, India. (tradeindia.com)
  • The company has two thionyl chloride plants in Germany and in India. (chemmarket.info)
  • Also using ferric chloride in removing turbidity is associated with creating colors in water and this causes a yellow reddish brown color on materials and if the its amount is more than 1 mg/l in water, it will cause turbidity and a medical taste in water (Sadeddin et al, 2011). (freethesaurus.com)
  • Ammonium Chloride I.P, Non Ferric Alum Powder, Caustic Potash Flakes (Universal / GACL), Chromic Acid - 99% Pure, Dicalc. (needsinfo.com)
  • Lanxess Basic Chemicals (Germany) is the biggest global producer of thionyl chloride. (chemmarket.info)
  • This list is added with a Swiss thionyl chloride enterprise SF-Chem AG which was acquired in 2007 by CABB GmbH (Germany), one of the leading producers of monochloroacetic acid globally. (chemmarket.info)
  • Russia and Ukraine do not manufacture thionyl chloride, satisfying the demand for this product by means of imports. (chemmarket.info)
  • In 2009 Russian customers were supplied with 44.2 tonnes of thionyl chloride, 59% of which were supplied by Lanxess and the remaining part - by Transpek Industry. (chemmarket.info)
  • Benzalkonium Chloride report is in-depth investigation for Global market. (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • Benzalkonium Chloride market was valued at USD XX million Global in 2018 and is forecasted to reach USD XX million by 2024, with a CAGR of xx% during the 2018-2024. (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • 3. Global key players information including SWOT analysis, company s financial figures, Benzalkonium Chloride data of each company are covered. (24chemicalresearch.com)
  • This test will find out how much chloride is in your blood and help your healthcare provider figure out if you may have certain kidney problems. (umassmemorial.org)
  • This can help find out how much chloride is leaving your body in your urine. (gvog.com)
  • Ammonium Alpha Chemicals Ammonium Chloride - NH4Cl Verified Purchase. (keywords-monitoring-success.com)
  • Engaged in the design, discovery and development of NNR Therapeuticas, a new class of drugs for the treatment of multiple diseases and disorders of the central nervous system, the biopharmaceutical company used chemicals and solvents such as ether, methylene chloride , chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, isopropyl alcohol, methanol and toluene in its process. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Presenting an in-depth analysis into a variety of aspects dealing with corrosion, this state-of-the-art publication includes such topics as: the marked influence of chloride in causing corrosion, ways for controlling corrosion by using chloride-free accelerators, the reduction of chloride penetration through the use of pozzolanic blast-furnace slag as an admixture in concrete, and the conductive coating aspects of cathodic protection. (concrete.org)
  • This pilot study will compare the two hypertonic solutions currently used for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) - related complications and to determine if the reduction of chloride load is safer, and as efficacious as the classic hypertonic solution. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study will compare the two hypertonic solutions currently used for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) - related complications and to determine if the reduction of chloride load by using a sodium acetate and sodium chloride mixture can lead to a relative reduction of serum chloride, reduce kidney injury, and as efficacious as the classic hypertonic solution. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Although there is a close relationship between chloride and sodium in certain physiological processes, the chloride ion has functions which are essentially independent of the sodium ion. (unl.edu)
  • The physiological role of the muscle chloride conductance was therefore initially unclear. (rupress.org)
  • Indeed, these compounds activated the intracellular chloride efflux, increased ECM generation, and stimulated cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Intracellular chloride accumulation is modulated by polyphenols. (nih.gov)
  • a) Among the different combinations of polyphenols, only those provided by Hibiscus sabdariffa decreased intracellular chloride accumulation. (nih.gov)
  • Mutagenesis of the chloride-binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. (sciencemag.org)
  • The hypothesis is that high chloride solutions are associated with adverse outcomes as measured by administrative data and by clinical parameters. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recent evidence from the literature correlates high chloride load when applying IV fluids with worse outcome in a variety of critically-ill patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For samples with high chloride contents. (mn-net.com)
  • Thallium mediates a rapid chloride/hydroxyl ion exchange through myelin lipid bilayers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Return to Cement Hydration and Degradation Modeling Software) The purpose of this form is to estimate the results of a rapid chloride permeability test (ASTM. (nist.gov)
  • It has been reported that the silver-silver chloride electrode having excellent characteristics as a skin electrode is prepared by electrolyzing a silver plate as an anode in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride to form a film of silver chloride on the surface of the silver plate or by press-molding a mixture of powdery silver and powdery silver chloride. (google.com)
  • An investigation into the use of cuprous chloride for the removal of radioactive iodide from aqueous solutions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was examined as a precipitant to remove iodide (I(-)) from aqueous solutions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • You may also need to have your urine tested for chloride levels and your blood for glucose, or blood sugar, levels. (umassmemorial.org)
  • A chloride test measures the level of chloride in your blood or urine. (gvog.com)
  • Extra chloride leaves your body in your urine. (gvog.com)
  • Sometimes a test for chloride can be done on a one-time random sample of urine or on a sample of all your urine collected over a 24-hour period (called a 24-hour urine sample). (gvog.com)
  • Extra chloride is excreted into the urine by the kidneys. (nursing.com)
  • By means of the penetration depth of the chlorides, after an electric charge has been applied for a specific time according to NT BUILD 492: 'Chloride Migration Coefficient from Non-Steady-State Migration Experiments', to evaluate the chloride diffusion coefficient for service life calculations. (geneq.com)
  • Serum chloride levels will be measured as part of standard of care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Difference between serum chloride level on randomization day and the peak afterwards will be calculated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A simple example of an organic covalently-bonded (an organochloride ) chloride is chloromethane (CH 3 Cl), often called methyl chloride. (chemeurope.com)
  • Anhydrous copper chloride is brown, but copper chloride hydrate is light blue. (reference.com)
  • In a landmark study on muscle excitability and myotonia, Adrian and Bryant (1974) demonstrated that the existence of transverse tubules, deep invaginations of the sarcolemma that permit the quick penetration of electrical signals to the muscle interior, makes muscle chloride channels necessary for normal muscle excitability. (rupress.org)
  • Reference: D.P. Bentz, R.J. Detwiler, E.J. Garboczi, P. Halamickova, and L.M. Schwartz, Proceedings of Chloride Penetration into Concrete ,edited by L.O. Nilsson and J.P. Ollivier, RILEM (1997). (nist.gov)
  • 3. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 2 wherein the ethylenically unsaturated monomer is selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, acrylic acid esters, methacrylic acid esters, nitriles and amides. (google.com)
  • 4. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the anionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonate, sodium salts of alkyl sulfonic acid esters, sodium salts of sulfosuccinic acid alkyl esters, sodium alkylsulfonate, sodium alkyldiphenylether sulfonate, and sulfuric acid esters of alkylphenolpolyethylene oxide. (google.com)
  • 5. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the nonionic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of alkyl ethers, alkylphenol ethers and higher fatty acid esters of polyethylene oxide. (google.com)
  • 6. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the nonionic surfactant is a fatty acid ester of polyethylene oxide having an average number of ethylene oxide repeat units of from 15 to 40. (google.com)
  • The uptake of gold by activated carbon from acid chloride solutions involves the reduction of gold(IIl) to metallic gold. (edu.au)
  • A genetic human disease, myotonia congenita, helped to clarify the impact of muscle chloride channels and provided an example of how background conductances can contribute to the modulation of cell excitability. (rupress.org)
  • Myotonic muscle fibers exhibit a decreased resting chloride conductance ( Lipicky and Bryant, 1973 ), and normal muscle fibers can be made hyperexcitable upon block of muscle chloride channels ( Bryant and Morales-Aguilera, 1971 ). (rupress.org)
  • Dysfunction of muscle chloride channels in myotonia does not modify the shape of the action potential ( Lipicky and Bryant, 1973 ), and so it can be concluded that these channels do not contribute to the repolarization of the muscle fiber. (rupress.org)
  • However, for many years, muscle chloride channels resisted a detailed biophysical characterization. (rupress.org)
  • 8. The vinylidene chloride copolymer latex of claim 1 wherein the cationic surfactant is a salt of a quaternary amine represented by the formula: ##STR2## wherein R is an alkyl and n and m are integers having values from 2 to 15. (google.com)
  • Polyaluminum Chloride Poly Aluminum Chloride PAC is a kind of highly effective water purificant which is wildly used in the purification of table water industry water industry circulation water and wasted and polluted water from pharmacy industry paper making industry and printing and dying industry as well as life. (akdchemical.nl)
  • The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a phosphorylation- and ATP-dependent chloride channel that modulates salt and water transport across lung and gut epithelia. (rupress.org)
  • In normal muscle, a large resting chloride conductance reduces the length constant of electrotonic signal propagation and prevents transmission of T-tubular depolarization to the surface membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Different combinations of dietary polyphenols derived from plant extracts were assayed in FGFR3 (G380R) mutated murine chondrocytes, exploring cell survival, chloride efflux, extracellular matrix (ECM) generation, and grade of activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. (nih.gov)
  • Ammonium Chloride, Dicalcium Phosphate (Feed Grade). (needsinfo.com)
  • In order to overcome these disadvantages on the conventional preparation of the silver-silver chloride electrode, it has been proposed to prepare a silver-silver chloride electrode by coating a layer of a homogeneous mixture of silver grain, silver chloride grain and a synthetic resin such as polyvinyl chloride and epoxy resin on a substrate for the electrode in Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 24195/1972. (google.com)