• The serum concentrations of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and classical tumor markers such as carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA) and squamous cell cancer antigen (SCC-Ag) were measured using immunoenzyme assays, while C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were assessed by immunoturbidimetric method. (hindawi.com)
  • To assess the impact of CXCL12 signaling on the vasculature and its ability to recruit progenitor cells, we combined a fluorescent chimeric mouse model and in vivo imaging to capture the chronological interactions among tumor cells (RFP), circulating BMDCs (GFP) and the cerebral vessels (FITC dextran) during tumor growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs) and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. (mdpi.com)
  • In the last years, several molecules able to target CXCR4 or CXCL12 have been developed to interfere with tumor growth, including pharmacological inhibitors, antagonists, and specific antibodies. (hindawi.com)
  • The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis takes part in a series of physiological, biochemical, and pathological process, such as inflammation and leukocyte trafficking, cancer-induced bone pain, and postsurgical pain, and also is a key factor in the cross-talking between tumor cells and their microenvironment. (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling is important for tumor development and targeting the pathway might represent an effective approach to developing novel therapy in cancer treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tumor PD-L1 altered tumor chemokines (e.g. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumor PD-L1 alteration of immune infiltrates by altering chemokines is a novel mechanism for PD-L1 TIL control. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, αPD-L1 directly altered tumor cell chemokine production in vitro, suggesting additional, novel αPD-L1 treatment mechanisms requiring more study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Targeting the CXCR4-CXCL12 axis thus offers the possibility of affecting CXCR4-expressing primary tumor cells, modulating the immune response, or synergizing with other targeted anticancer therapies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Another explanation of this observation is provided by a study that shows the ability of CXCL12 (and CCL2) producing tumors to entrain neutrophils that inhibit seeding of tumor cells in the lung. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), a chemokine G-protein-coupled receptor, is frequently expressed in pancreatic cancer and affects pancreatic tumor cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion in cellulo and in clinical samples ( 4 - 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • As tumor invasiveness couples with the migratory ability of cells, we first investigated the effect of these drugs on actin polymerization and cell chemotaxis in response to CXCL12. (nih.gov)
  • T helper 1 (Th1) clones, established from the CSF of individuals with IND and from a healthy subject, similarly migrated to CXCL10, CXCL12, and CCL5. (prohealth.com)
  • We demonstrate that intermediate progenitors release the chemotactic cytokine CXCL12 to promote intracortical interneuron migration and growth of thalamic axons via the cognate receptor CXCR4. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine with regulatory functions in wound healing, and several chemokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). (arvojournals.org)
  • Magnetic bead-based assays for detecting 46 mouse cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor biomarkers. (bio-rad.com)
  • We selected most pathways Ccl21c participated on our site, such as Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Chemokine signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • It was shown that the chemokine network plays crucial functions in the tumorigenesis in several tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • The expressions of CXCL12/CXCR4 and CXCL16/CXCR6 were significantly higher in epithelial ovarian carcinomas than in normal epithelial ovarian tissues or benign epithelial ovarian tumors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some chemokines control cells of the immune system during processes of immune surveillance, such as directing lymphocytes to the lymph nodes so they can screen for invasion of pathogens by interacting with antigen-presenting cells residing in these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bromley, S.K., Thomas, S.Y. & Luster, A.D. Chemokine receptor CCR7 guides T cell exit from peripheral tissues and entry into afferent lymphatics. (nature.com)
  • Chemokine receptor CCR7 required for T lymphocyte exit from peripheral tissues. (nature.com)
  • Overall, this chemokine system could be one of the key players of the neuro-immune interface that participates in shaping the brain in response to changes in the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Besides their effect on the immune system, cytokines can also act in the brain to modulate our behaviors, inducing, for example, anorexia upon inflammation when produced in large amount, but cytokines/chemokines could also play a key role in the brain even in non-pathological conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chemokines are a group of related chemoattractant peptides that are essential regulators of the immune system, both during homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • While a function of chemokines is to regulate lymphocyte trafficking, the view that chemokines act simply as "chemotactic cytokines" has evolved to include the many critical roles they play in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. (mdpi.com)
  • On one hand, the chemokine network is used by tumors to evade immune surveillance, resist apoptosis, and metastasize. (mdpi.com)
  • On the other hand, the chemokine system also plays a crucial role in the induction of antitumor immune responses and optimal effector function regulation of immune cells [ 1 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides mainly involved in the immune responses. (hindawi.com)
  • Some chemokines are considered pro- inflammatory and can be induced during an immune response to recruit cells of the immune system to a site of infection , while others are considered homeostatic and are involved in controlling the migration of cells during normal processes of tissue maintenance or development . (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) attract immune cells, although their original evolutionary role may relate more closely with embryonic development. (pnas.org)
  • Once at the site of injury, immune cells can react by releasing additional cytokines and chemokines, bringing more cells into the fold. (biolegend.com)
  • Due to the close link between HIV infection and drug abuse, an active area of research in the laboratory is the interaction of opiates with the endogenous chemokine system - a crucial regulator of both immune and nervous system function. (drexel.edu)
  • Over the past decade, functional studies of these molecules have revealed their importance for cell migration processes during embryogenesis, which, in addition to providing mechanistic insights into embryonic development, could complement information about chemokine function in the immune system. (biologists.org)
  • Chemokines belong to a large group of structurally related and secretable, largely basic, chemotactic cytokines, which can be divided into 4 families (CC, CXC, CX 3 C, XC) based on the position of the first 2 cysteine residues. (ahajournals.org)
  • NMR and fluorescence polarization measurements showed that the CXCR4 peptide stabilizes dimeric SDF-1alpha, and that sulfotyrosine 21 binds a specific site on the chemokine that includes arginine 47. (nih.gov)
  • Our nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies revealed a symmetric 2:2 complex in which the binding of CXCR4 stabilized dimeric SDF-1 and each receptor sulfotyrosine occupied a unique site on the chemokine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Based on our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the serum concentration of chemokine CXCL12 and its specific receptor CXCR4 in the diagnosis of EC patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Attracted cells move through the gradient towards the higher concentration of chemokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intermediate Progenitors Facilitate Intracortical Progression of Thalamocortical Axons and Interneurons through CXCL12 Chemokine Signaling. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We propose that CXCL12 signals from IPCs link cortical neurogenesis to the progression of TCAs and interneurons spatially and temporally. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The fundamental importance of chemokines for atherogenesis, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques is now widely appreciated, but the degree of complexity, specificity, and cooperativity harnessed by these signal molecules to govern atherogenic cell recruitment and homeostasis is still being refined. (ahajournals.org)
  • They also suggest an ability of HSCs to express CXCL12 in a fashion that changes with cell cycle progression and is associated with a defective engraftment that can be overcome by in vivo administration of a CXCL12 antagonist. (jci.org)
  • Chemokines are involved in cancer-related inflammation and malignant progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the current study, we show that progression of human urothelial and renal carcinomas is associated with increased expression of chemokine receptor CCR8. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have isolated and identified by differential display analysis 182 differentially expressed cDNAs from CXCR3-transfected Jurkat T cells following treatment with CXCL12 or CXCL10. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CXCL10, CXCL12, and CCL19 were increased in the CSF of individuals with neuroinflammation. (prohealth.com)
  • Novel roles and regulatory factors: The lab has identified novel roles of chemokines in differentiated neurons, such as regulation of neuronal-glial communication, neurotransmission, and excitotoxicity. (drexel.edu)
  • We show that monocytic and granulocytic myeloid cell subsets in peripheral blood of patients with cancer with urothelial and renal carcinomas display increased expression of chemokine receptor CCR8. (aacrjournals.org)