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  • Surfaces
  • physics ( solid-state , electromagnetic theory , surface physics, statistical physics , thermal physics ), fractal mathematics , chemistry ( chemical reactions on grain surfaces), meteoritics , as well as every branch of astronomy and astrophysics . (wikipedia.org)
  • exposures
  • In a day and age where chemical and radiation exposures from industrial pollution are ubiquitous and virtually unavoidable, it behooves us all to find ways to minimize exposure to them as well as to reduce their complex toxicities. (collective-evolution.com)
  • primordial
  • Whenever you choke on acrid cigarette smoke, feel like you're burning up from a mouthful of wasabi-laced sushi, or cry while cutting raw onions and garlic, your response is being triggered by a primordial chemical sensor conserved across some 500 million years of animal evolution, report Brandeis scientists in a study in Nature this week. (brandeis.edu)
  • Indeed, the authors of the new study suggest that the non-canonical nucleosides could have played a crucial role in the phase of chemical evolution that preceded the emergence of the 'RNA world' (the term refers to a hypothetical period during which RNA molecules are thought to have served as chemical catalysts, in addition to storing genetic information, in primordial cells). (nano-initiative-munich.de)
  • synthesis
  • We used directed evolution to obtain enantiocomplementary haloalkane dehalogenase variants that convert the toxic waste compound 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) into highly enantioenriched (R)- or (S)-2,3-dichloropropan-1-ol, which can easily be converted into optically active epichlorohydrins-attractive intermediates for the synthesis of enantiopure fine chemicals. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • detection
  • Chemical nociception, the detection of tissue-damaging pungent chemicals like those found in wasabi, tear gas and cigarette smoke, is triggered by a protein receptor known as TRPA1, which is found throughout the human body in the nose, mouth, skin, lungs, and GI tract. (brandeis.edu)
  • amounts
  • The amounts of these chemicals were tiny, with a quantum yield (Φ) of only 1.0 x 10 -4 , i.e. only one amino acid formed for every ten thousand photons, and 36% of that was the simplest, glycine. (creation.com)
  • Energy, water, and chemicals would have had to combine in perhaps precise amounts and sequences for this process to have occurred. (mdpi.com)
  • primitive
  • They exhibit properties of self-replication, and provide a path to a primitive metabolism, via chemical competition and thus a primitive selection. (spie.org)
  • We review here some salient points of Oparin's model and address also some philosophical views on the beginning of natural selection in primitive chemical systems. (spie.org)
  • It's also worth noting that the myth of the methane-ammonia primitive atmosphere is an 'Icon of Evolution', very hard for people to give up even though it was largely discredited in the early 1980s. (creation.com)
  • processes
  • For one, the first RNA molecules would have to arise by unguided, non-biological chemical processes. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The evolution of dust traces out paths in which the Universe recycles material, in processes analogous to the daily recycling steps with which many people are familiar: production, storage, processing, collection, consumption, and discarding. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • These researchers are following the transport and transformation of the plume of gases and aerosols emitted by wildfires to understand the chemical changes they undergo over time, how their properties might vary, and their impacts on human health and the environment," said Sylvia Edgerton, a program director in NSF's Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences, which funds WE-CAN. (eponline.com)
  • convert
  • 9 Significant steps have been taken towards the utilization of CO 2 in order to convert it into valuable chemicals (150 Mt urea, 100 Mt methanol, 70 Mt salicylic acid, 9.7 Mt formaldehyde and 0.7 Mt formic acid are the most produced). (rsc.org)
  • compounds
  • While many aspects of other chemical senses like taste and smell have been independently invented multiple times over the course of animal evolution, the chemical sense that detects these reactive compounds is different. (brandeis.edu)
  • experiments
  • After running the experiments and letting the chemical products sit for a period of time, Miller discovered that amino acids - the building blocks of proteins - had been produced. (intelligentdesign.org)
  • study
  • What the study, spearheaded by Kyeongjin Kang in my lab, shows, is that this chemical sense is nearly as ancient as vision," said Garrity. (brandeis.edu)
  • Introduction Emerging chemical knowledge and the development of chemical industry, and particularly the interaction between them, offer rich fields of study for the historian. (springer.com)
  • A promising study confirms that the simple act of sweating may go a long way in removing dangerous industrial chemicals from our bodies. (collective-evolution.com)
  • Now, a new study indicates we can add another particularly nasty category of chemicals to the list of substances that the body can remove directly through sweating. (collective-evolution.com)
  • The Canadian study on the topic entitled, "Human Excretion of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study ," and published in Biomedical Research International , reveals that induced sweating helps the body remove the man-made group of flame retardant chemicals known as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). (collective-evolution.com)
  • While the federal government is slowly beginning to acknowledge the hazards associated with fluorinated chemicals, their response so far has been limited primarily to further study and voluntary agreements with manufactures on only a few of the chemicals of concern. (collective-evolution.com)
  • molecules
  • Meanwhile, we know rather more about the early Earth, but how might the chemical structures that provide the basic subunits of today's hereditary molecules - RNA and DNA - have formed from simpler starting materials some 4 billion years ago? (nano-initiative-munich.de)
  • These guys have simulated the way molecules must have formed in the early universe and shown how this reproduces the chemical mix that astronomers now observe in space. (technologyreview.com)
  • system
  • Since that time, it appears that most animals, including humans, have maintained this same ancient system for detecting reactive chemicals. (brandeis.edu)
  • It's the first of many, but how are so many dangerous chemicals ending up in our system? (collective-evolution.com)
  • That's useful because the Murchison meteorite dates from the formation of the solar system some five billion years ago, making it a snapshot of chemical evolution from an earlier time. (technologyreview.com)
  • Im not sure if earth is unique, i doubt it with all that mass out there, but why is it our planet has a, seemingly uncommon orbt, was there a special case for the evolution of our slolar system? (physicsforums.com)
  • In other words, Alpha Centauri may have picked up some rogue planets over time, which would have had drastic impact on the evolution of the system. (universetoday.com)
  • simple
  • CELib (Chemical Evolution Library) simulates chemical evolution of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation and can be used by any simulation code that uses the SSP approximation, such as particle-base and mesh codes as well as semi-analytical models. (ascl.net)
  • scientists
  • Studying the chemical sensors of Drosophila fruit flies, scientists discovered that flies use their ortholog of the human TRPA1 sensor for the same purpose. (brandeis.edu)
  • Even intelligent human scientists armed with the most sophisticated technology cannot reproduce their design and manufacture-so, logically, neither can unintelligent chemicals or the laws that govern them. (blogspot.com)
  • What makes evolution such a profoundly provocative concept, so convincing to most scientists, yet so socially and politically divisive? (audible.com)
  • fact
  • Personally, I don't think that there is any good news that comes from the fact that 18 unregulated, unhealthy chemicals were found. (collective-evolution.com)
  • The fact that there is much to learn about how the first living creatures originated has little to do with the truth or falsity of evolution. (ncse.com)
  • high
  • Chemical manufacturers, importers, and processors must be prepared to work with the EPA for high-priority substances under new rules. (intertek.com)
  • possible
  • Through the subdivision of this initiative that deals specifically with chemical industry it has been possible for historians of science, technology, business and economics to share often widely differing viewpoints and develop consensus across disciplinary and cultural boundaries. (springer.com)
  • Many possible scenarios have been proposed for the phase of chemical evolution that preceded the emergence of the first biological cells. (nano-initiative-munich.de)
  • different
  • They stained these slices with chemicals that react to different types of neurotransmitters, including dopamine, serotonin, and neuropeptide Y-which are associated with sensitivity to social cues and cooperative behavior. (kstateanthclub.com)
  • human
  • The interior of the fruit fly proboscis contains sensors that detect pungent chemicals using a mechanism shared by sensors within the human mouth. (brandeis.edu)
  • support
  • The editors wish to thank the European Science Foundation for its support of the programme on the Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, as well as for sponsoring the publication of this volume. (springer.com)
  • industry
  • This is reflected in the contents of the three workshops dealing with the emergence of chemical industry held under the aegis of the European Science Foundation's Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, programme. (springer.com)