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  • Bayer
  • Aspirin was discovered in the laboratories of the German Bayer Co. in 1897, supposedly by a 29-year-old employee named Felix Hoffmann, who ostensibly was looking for an agent to ease his father's arthritic pain. (acs.org)
  • Following the commercialization of aspirin, Eichengruen was appointed in 1901 to head pharmaceutical and photographic research at Bayer, while Hoffmann was transferred from research to pharmaceutical sales. (acs.org)
  • In 1919, Sterling sold its dye division for $2.5 million to the Grasselli Chemical Company (based in Linden, New Jersey), which employed many former Bayer personnel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 1920 agreement between Sterling and Bayer AG granted Sterling the rights to the "Bayer" brand to sell aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bayer also re-acquired the brand rights to the "Bayer Aspirin" name it had lost because of World War I. Spinoffs from the sale of Sterling include Starwin Products, created in 1987 from Sterling's original branch in Ghana. (wikipedia.org)
  • By 1899, Bayer had named it "Aspirin" and sold it around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bayer denied this in a press release, asserting that the invention of aspirin was due to Hoffmann. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://web.archive.org/web/20070928132933/http://pressearchiv-kubitschek.www.de/pharma-presse/presseerklaerungen/texte/pharma_medikamente/bayer/bayer_110999.html Sneader's paper crediting Eichengrün with the invention of aspirin in the British Medical Journal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1954, Monsanto partnered with German chemical giant Bayer to form Mobay and market polyurethanes in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bayer's official story credits Felix Hoffmann, a young Bayer chemist, with the invention of aspirin in 1897. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eichengrün first claimed to have invented aspirin in a 1944 letter from Theresienstadt concentration camp, addressed to IG Farben (of which Bayer was a part), where he cited his many contributions to the company (which was highly influential in the concentration camps), including the invention of aspirin, as reasons for why he should be released. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1899
  • In 1899 it was marketed for the first time under the trade name Aspirin, initially as a powder supplied in glass bottles. (wikipedia.org)
  • invention of aspirin
  • The Eichengrün version was ignored by historians and chemists until 1999, when Walter Sneader of the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow re-examined the case and came to the conclusion that indeed Eichengrün's account was convincing and correct and that Eichengrün deserved credit for the invention of aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hoffmann
  • However, the discoverer of aspirin was not Hoffmann but Arthur Eichengruen, a survivor of the Theresienstadt concentration camp. (acs.org)
  • Hoffmann first claimed to be the "inventor" of aspirin (as opposed to just the synthesizer) in a footnote to a German encyclopedia published in 1934, saying that his father had complained about the bitter taste of sodium salicylate, the only drug then available to treat rheumatism. (wikipedia.org)
  • footnote
  • Due to the rise of the Nazis in Germany, Eichengrün was unable to object when Hoffman first made the claim that he (Hoffman) invented aspirin, in the footnote of a 1934 German Encyclopedia. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemists
  • What everyone agrees on is that the entire sequence of reports on polymorphism in aspirin puts the spotlight on fascinating knowledge gaps in organic chemists' understanding of the solid state. (acs.org)
  • For the next fifty years, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient methods to make it. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Aspirin acts as an acetylating agent where an acetyl group is covalently attached to a serine residue in the active site of the COX enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] As platelets have no DNA, they are unable to synthesize new COX once aspirin has irreversibly inhibited the enzyme, an important difference between aspirin and the reversible inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • In the same year he received the first award of "The Polish Science Foundation" for his studies on mechanism of action of aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • It was one of the top 10 U.S. chemical companies until it divested most of its chemical businesses between 1997 and 2002, through a process of mergers and spin-offs that focused the company on biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • A. Doctors and health care professionals will be provided with full prescribing information about the use of aspirin in both men and women who have had a heart attack, stroke, certain other cardiovascular conditions and rheumatologic diseases. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Information on the use of aspirin for rheumatologic diseases has also been expanded to include specific dosing information as well as information about side effects and toxicity. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Clinical
  • Evidence supporting Eichengrün's claims to the invention Walter Sneader based his claims that Eichengrün both invented the process for synthesizing aspirin and oversaw its clinical testing on old and newly released archived materials, including letters, patents, and lab work. (wikipedia.org)
  • tablets
  • In 1923 Sterling purchased a 25% interest in The Centaur Company, manufacturer of Charles Henry Fletcher's, Fletcher's Castoria In 1940, a cross-contamination from equipment sharing resulted in Winthrop Chemical producing contaminated sulfathiazole tablets contaminated with phenobarbital. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monsanto
  • In 1901 Monsanto was founded in St. Louis, Missouri, as a chemical company. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monsanto expanded to Europe in 1919 in a partnership with Graesser's Chemical Works at Cefn Mawr, Wales. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1920s, Monsanto expanded into basic industrial chemicals such as sulfuric acid and PCBs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1935, Monsanto bought the Swann Chemical Company in Anniston, Alabama, and thereby entered the business of producing PCBs. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • In its long-known crystal form, Form I, aspirin molecules form dimers of dimers that align into layers, which tilt in alternating up-and-down directions. (acs.org)
  • The paper suggests that the data in the JACS communication could be just as easily interpreted as describing two orientations of the same already-known crystal form of aspirin as evidence for a new crystal form. (acs.org)
  • Sterling Drug was an American global pharmaceutical company, known as Sterling-Winthrop, Inc. after the merger with Winthrop-Stearns Inc. (which resulted from the merger of Winthrop Chemical Company Inc. and Frederick Stearns & Company). (wikipedia.org)
  • pharmaceutical
  • In 1958 Harry Collier, a biochemist in the London laboratory of pharmaceutical company Parke Davis, began investigating the relationship between kinins and the effects of aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence
  • Evidence is mounting that regular usage of aspirin may reduce the risk of many today's commonest cancer. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • There is some evidence that aspirin is effective at preventing colorectal cancer, though the mechanisms of this effect are unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • He found that cutting the guinea pigs' vagus nerve did not affect the action of bradykinin or the inhibitory effect of aspirin-evidence that aspirin worked locally to combat pain and inflammation, rather than on the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • ratio
  • The complex possessed the highest activity when the ratio of heparin to aspirin was 10 : 1. (msk.ru)
  • given
  • Oxaprozin should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. (tripod.com)
  • 4 What You'll Learn  Write mole ratios from balanced chemical equations  Calculate the number of moles and the mass of a reactant of product when given the number of moles or the mass of another reactant or product. (slideplayer.com)
  • Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tests on guinea pigs, Collier found that aspirin, if given beforehand, inhibited the bronchoconstriction effects of bradykinin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular
  • In the United States low dose aspirin is deemed reasonable in those between 50 and 70 years old who have a more than 10% risk of cardiovascular disease and are not at an increased risk of bleeding who are otherwise healthy. (wikipedia.org)
  • pain
  • Topical aspirin may be effective for treating some types of neuropathic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspirin causes several different effects in the body, mainly the reduction of inflammation, analgesia (relief of pain), the prevention of clotting, and the reduction of fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heinrich Dreser's explanation, widely accepted since the drug was first brought to market, was that aspirin relieved pain by acting on the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, other effects of aspirin, such as uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, and the modulation of signaling through NF-κB, are also being investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • willow
  • A precursor to aspirin in the form of leaves from the willow tree has been used for its health effects for at least 2,400 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • It was developed by Merck Sharp & Dohme in 1971, as MK647, after showing promise in a research project studying more potent chemical analogs of aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her research was highlighted in "Aspirin: The Remarkable Story of a Wonder Drug" by Diarmuid Jeffreys. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • How does Aspirin work in the body? (markedbyteachers.com)
  • They say the collective message of the work is that aspirin molecules, and quite likely many other organic molecules, can assume subtly different packing arrangements even within the same minuscule crystal grain. (acs.org)
  • Photodegradation is theorized to work by drawing the target chemical up the roots and stem into the leaves where it is degraded by higher energy radiation provided by the sun. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Last April, lead author Michael Zaworotko of the University of South Florida, Matthew Peterson of TransForm Pharmaceuticals in Lexington, Mass., and several partners filed an international patent application, still pending, for the putative new form of aspirin. (acs.org)
  • The claim of a second crystal form-which highlights previously underappreciated subtleties in crystals and could have legal and commercial consequences in the aspirin industry-naturally caught the eye of Gautam R. Desiraju of the University of Hyderabad, in India. (acs.org)
  • structure
  • In light of such purported ambiguity, Desiraju's team contends, the data reported in the JACS communication is insufficient for claiming to have found an elusive new crystal structure for aspirin. (acs.org)
  • They concede that the crystallographic data reported in their JACS communication is not the best, but they argue that the validity of the resulting structure is reinforced by its conformity with an aspirin polymorph structure that theorist Sally Price of University College London proposed in 2004. (acs.org)
  • roots
  • Monsanto's roles in agricultural changes, biotechnology products and lobbying of government agencies and roots as a chemical company have surrounded the company in controversies. (wikipedia.org)
  • properties
  • The most distinct increase in fibrinolytic properties of blood occurred after intravenous administration of the heparin-aspirin complex. (msk.ru)
  • New Metabolic Pathway Reveals Aspirin-Like Compound's Anti-Cancer Properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • For discovering the anti-thrombotic properties of aspirin he was awarded Prize of the Foundation for Polish Science in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once
  • Once aspirin is synthesized, it needs to be purified, and an estimation of its purity should be performed. (reference.com)
  • CONDITIONS
  • 3) OTHER CORONARY CONDITIONS: Aspirin can be used to treat patients who have had certain revascularization procedures such as angioplasty, and coronary bypass operations -- if they have a vascular condition for which aspirin is already indicated. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Specific inflammatory conditions in which aspirin is used include Kawasaki disease, pericarditis, and rheumatic fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • PTGS1 (COX-1) and PTGS2 (COX-2) are bifunctional enzymes that carry out two consecutive chemical reactions in spatially distinct but mechanistically coupled active sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was done via modifications to the idea of "radicals" and accurate prediction of the existence of secondary and tertiary alcohols, and to the emerging array of organic reactions through his Kolbe electrolysis of carboxylate salts, the Kolbe-Schmitt reaction in the preparation of aspirin and the Kolbe nitrile synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kolbe was the first person to use the word synthesis in its present-day meaning, and contributed a number of new chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry: Chemistry - science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties, structure, composition, behavior, and changes as they relate the chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrochemistry - branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (the electrode: a metal or a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte), and which involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Femtochemistry - area of physical chemistry that studies chemical reactions on extremely short timescales, approximately 10−15 seconds (one femtosecond). (wikipedia.org)
  • Photochemistry - study of chemical reactions that proceed with the absorption of light by atoms or molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry - study of the chemicals, chemical reactions and chemical interactions that take place in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • heart
  • The main use of Aspirin is as a pain-killer, though more recently it has shown to prevent cardiovascular (heart) problems and now cancer. (blogspot.com)
  • Not all heart attacks are can be treated with an aspirin and in some cases it can make the situation worse. (sejat-jasmani.com)
  • Fatty liver disease can also result from consuming too much fat or fructose, and as a side-effect from using aspirin, a heart drug called amiodarone, steroids, tetracycline antibiotics, methotrexate (a drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and certain kinds of cancer), and antiviral medications. (turmericsgold.com)
  • high
  • The first clinical applications were in identifying the sudden bursts of high voltage slow frequencies during seizures, both spontaneous and induced by the chemical pentylenetetrazol (Metrazol), by electricity in electroshock, and in the coma induced by insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Stereochemistry - study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms that form the structure of molecules Surface science - study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid-liquid interfaces, solid-gas interfaces, solid-vacuum interfaces, and liquid-gas interfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug
  • The new drug, formally acetylsalicylic acid, was named aspirin by Hoffmann's employer Bayer AG after the old botanical name for meadowsweet, Spiraea ulmaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Aspirin causes several different effects in the body, mainly the reduction of inflammation, analgesia (relief of pain), the prevention of clotting, and the reduction of fever. (wikipedia.org)
  • He found that cutting the guinea pigs' vagus nerve did not affect the action of bradykinin or the inhibitory effect of aspirin-evidence that aspirin worked locally to combat pain and inflammation, rather than on the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemist
  • In 1867 Robert Ferdinand Graesser, an industrial chemist from Obermosel in Saxony, Germany, established a chemical works at Plas Kynaston to extract paraffin oil and paraffin wax from the local shale. (wikipedia.org)
  • however
  • However, other effects of aspirin, such as uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, and the modulation of signaling through NF-κB, are also being investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Company
  • In 1958 Harry Collier, a biochemist in the London laboratory of pharmaceutical company Parke Davis, began investigating the relationship between kinins and the effects of aspirin. (wikipedia.org)
  • muscle
  • Aspirin is generally ineffective for those pains caused by muscle cramps, bloating, gastric distension, or acute skin irritation. (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • For the next fifty years, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient methods to make it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States low dose aspirin is deemed reasonable in those between 50 and 70 years old who have a more than 10% risk of cardiovascular disease and are not at an increased risk of bleeding who are otherwise healthy. (wikipedia.org)