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  • peptides
  • To circumvent this problem, we have modified the LTQ mass spectrometer for ion/ion chemistry and now fragment both peptides ( 2 ) and intact proteins ( 3 ) by electron transfer dissociation (ETD). (pnas.org)
  • TopBP1
  • A DNA damage response screen identifies RHINO, a 9-1-1 and TopBP1 interacting protein required for ATR signaling. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 2002). A DNA damage-regulated BRCT-containing protein, TopBP1, is required for cell survival. (core.ac.uk)
  • recombination
  • Rad51 protein involved in recombination and repair in S. cerevisiae is a RecA-like protein. (osaka-u.ac.jp)
  • Base-pair switching by interconversion of sugar puckers in DNA extended by proteins of RecA family: A model for homology search in homologous genetic recombination. (osaka-u.ac.jp)
  • The MCM-binding protein ETG1 aids sister chromatid cohesion required for postreplicative homologous recombination repair. (abcam.cn)
  • spindle
  • 1994). Anaphase onset in vertebrate somatic cells is controlled by a checkpoint that monitors sister kinetochore attachment to the spindle. (core.ac.uk)
  • damage
  • This protein binds to chromatin prior to DNA damage and is phosphorylated by the checkpoint kinase ATR following damage. (nih.gov)
  • The phosphorylation of this protein is required for the DNA-damage-induced cell cycle G2 arrest, and is thought to be a critical early event during checkpoint signaling in DNA-damaged cells. (nih.gov)
  • DNA damage response clamp 9-1-1 promotes assembly of ZMM proteins for formation of crossovers and synaptonemal complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Because different DNA-damaging agents generate different DNA lesions, a key question in damage signaling is how the checkpoint proteins recognize different DNA lesions. (pnas.org)
  • The MMR proteins also function in signaling DNA damage ( 7 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • The ability of the MSH2/MSH6 heterodimer to bind a variety of modified DNA structure in vitro suggests a possibility that the MMR proteins may signal the DNA damage directly. (pnas.org)
  • MRN for ATM), ATM/ATR initiate the DNA damage checkpoint by phosphorylating a number of key proteins. (cancer.gov)
  • Mutator phenotype of Caenorhabditis elegans DNA damage checkpoint mutants. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This protein possesses 3' to 5' exonuclease activity, which may contribute to its role in sensing and repairing DNA damage. (nih.gov)
  • This complex is recruited by checkpoint protein RAD17 to the sites of DNA damage, which is thought to be important for triggering the checkpoint-signaling cascade. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with Spy1 having a role in the DNA damage response, endogenous Spy1 protein levels are up-regulated in response to DNA damage induced by camptothecin, cisplatin, or hydroxyurea. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most of the damage signals originated by the sensor complexes for the G 2 checkpoint are conducted to CDC25C, the activity of which is modulated by 14-3-3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Telomeric DNA ends are inert because they induce neither DNA repair nor DNA damage checkpoint responses. (biologists.org)
  • However, it is now clear that telomeres interact with numerous DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint proteins. (biologists.org)
  • One such protein is Nek8/NPHP9, a protein kinase we have shown to prevent DNA damage at stalled forks by regulating CDK activity. (stanford.edu)
  • clamp
  • Acts then as a sliding clamp platform on DNA for several proteins involved in long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER). (nih.gov)
  • cell cycle
  • Component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex that plays a major role in DNA repair. (nih.gov)
  • It would be many years before the concept of the cell cycle checkpoint would be fully realized ( 3 ), not until the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle checkpoints were first elucidated in the late 1980s using yeasts, fungi, and the oocytes of amphibians. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When, concurrently, oncologists began examining the mechanisms of oncogenesis in higher eukaryotes using the same molecular biology techniques as their cell cycle counterparts, it was revealed that many cancer cells have defective G 1 checkpoint mechanisms and that cancer cells depend on G 2 checkpoint far more than normal cells ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Combining these two streams of research gave rise to the concept of "cell cycle G 2 checkpoint abrogation" as a tactic for the development of cancer cell specific medicines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • tumor
  • Such checkpoint proteins are expressed on the surface of cancer cells and other cells within the tumor microenvironment, and their negative immune activities protect the tumor from being attacked by the immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • alternatively
  • Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode four distinct protein isoforms, have been reported. (nih.gov)
  • Alternatively, the checkpoint response can be activated indirectly through recognition of repair intermediates that are generated by MMR. (pnas.org)
  • PMID
  • Overexpression of Rad17 has been associated with human breast and colon cancers [ PMID: 10232579 , PMID: 11555598 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • roles
  • The mismatch repair (MMR) proteins play key roles in postreplicational mispair correction that is essential for genomic stability ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have identified new factors involved in these processes and ongoing projects relate to studying the roles of these factors and other known DDR proteins in these processes. (stanford.edu)
  • repair
  • Multiple possible sites of BRCA2 interacting with DNA repair protein Rad51. (osaka-u.ac.jp)
  • Since telomeric repeats are found at all telomeres, they are presumably essential for telomeres to escape DNA repair or checkpoint responses. (biologists.org)