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  • double-strand
  • Rad17 is phosphorylated by ATM at Thr622 resulting in a direct interaction of Rad17 with NBS1, facilitating recruitment of MRE11, RAD50 and ATM to the DNA double-strand breaks. (nih.gov)
  • Independent of how they arise, double-strand breaks are dangerous as long as they exist, especially to a proliferating cell. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Several repair systems in human cells deal with double-strand breaks. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Double-strand breaks are protected by the KU70/KU80 protein heterodimer, and bound by the 'MRN' complex consisting of the MRE11, RAD50, and NBS1 (Nibrin) proteins. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Stalled replication forks are unstable and can be processed in aberrant ways, leading to double-strand break formation, which is known to drive chromosomal translocation and rearrangements in cancer cells. (stanford.edu)
  • transient
  • To ensure faithful initiation wave of the G1 checkpoint (preceding the replication and transmission of the genome and to promote p53-mediated maintenance wave) and the transient survival, checkpoints fulfil at least four tasks: they rapidly intra-S-phase response. (pharmapdf.com)
  • expression of checkpoint
  • mRNA levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and are expressed as the ratio of tumor (T) to normal tissues (N). c Nonparametric Spearman correlation analysis of the expression of checkpoint genes and proliferation marker (PCNA) in lung, colorectal, and breast cancer samples. (nih.gov)
  • genome
  • The Chk1 protein kinase preserves genome integrity in normal proliferating cells and in cells experiencing replicative and genotoxic stress. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rereplication of the genome, or even a segment of it, could initiate gene amplification and cause chromosomal translocation and loss, contributing to the tumorigenesis process. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the open ends can recombine with other parts of the genome, starting a chain reaction of recombinations and chromosome alterations that can lead to cell death or transformation. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • We are currently characterizing proteins identified in this screen with interesting ties to genome maintenance and human disease. (stanford.edu)
  • Results from our genome-wide screen indicate that RNA is a prominent and underexplored source of genome instability in cell. (stanford.edu)
  • Our genome-wide analysis identifies genes that affect entry into and/or exit from telomere-initiated senescence and will be of interest to those studying telomere biology, replicative senescence, cancer, and ageing. (g3journal.org)
  • forks
  • These data indicate that high level of Claspin and Timeless increase RS tolerance by protecting replication forks in cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • genetic
  • Individuals who carry an inherited genetic mutation and epigenetic aberrations in the tumor suppressor genes have an increased lifetime risk of developing cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • early embryonic versus Introduction 'somatic'), the cell type and differentiation stage, and the It is arguable that now and then the odd genetic mutation position of the cell within the cell cycle. (pharmapdf.com)
  • Genetic control of these cellcycle delays was first demonstrated when the RAD9 gene was shown to be required for the G 2 /M arrest after irradiation with X‐rays ( Weinert and Hartwell, 1988 ). (embopress.org)
  • claspin
  • Altogether, these data indicate that enhanced levels of Claspin and Timeless represent a gain of function that protects cancer cells from of oncogene-induced RS in a checkpoint-independent manner. (nih.gov)
  • d High expression of Claspin, Timeless, and CHK1 is associated to bad prognosis in NSCLC patients. (nih.gov)
  • a Western blot analysis of the levels of Claspin, Timeless, CHK1, and ATR in human cancer cell lines (U2OS, HeLa, and HCT116) and in immortalized primary fibroblasts (IMR90). (nih.gov)
  • recruitment
  • This step is associated with the recruitment of many other factors to the origin by the S-phase promoting kinases CDK and Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 Kinase (DDK) ( Labib 2010 ). (g3journal.org)
  • interactions
  • From diverse functional genomics data, we show that phosphoproteins have a higher number of interactions than an average protein and interact with each other more than with a random protein. (pnas.org)
  • complex
  • This protein shares strong similarity with DNA replication factor C (RFC), and can form a complex with RFCs. (nih.gov)
  • DDB1 is part of an E3 ligase complex that includes the cullin proteins Cul4A and Cul4B. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1), a triple β propeller adapter protein, targets the Cul4 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to Chk1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, we observed that hMYH was essential for the accumulation of hTopBP1 on damaged DNA, where hTopBP1 interacts with hRad9, a component of the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 complex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These data indicate that the interaction with the 9-1-1 complex is not required for Rad17 protein to be an efficient substrate for the UV-induced phosphorylation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Our data also raise the possibility that the 9-1-1 complex plays a negative regulatory role in the Rad17 phosphorylation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Through RNAi-based suppressor screens of lrr-1 (0) and cul-2 ( or209 ts ) mutants, we identified two genes encoding components of the GINS complex, which is part of the Cdc45-MCM-GINS (CMG) replicative helicase, as well as CDC-7 and MUS-101 , which drives the assembly of the CMG helicase during DNA replication. (g3journal.org)
  • Pre-RC formation requires several loading factors including the hexameric Origin Recognition Complex ( ORC-1 -6), and Cdc6 and Cdt1 proteins. (g3journal.org)
  • It is known that Rad17 loads the Rad9-Hus1-Rad1 (9-1-1) complex onto DNA. (semanticscholar.org)