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  • extracellular
  • The family of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is composed of three major groups: the extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs), the C-Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNKs) and the p38 MAPKs [ 1 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functions
  • Our understanding of the important functions of p38 MAPK in the process of differentiation and cell death has grown considerably in the recent years and is now relatively established. (ijbs.com)
  • activate
  • A variety of upstream MAPK Kinase Kinases phosphorylate (MKKKs) are known to phosphorylate and activate the more specific MKKs [ 7 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • When cells are ready to divide, because cell size is big enough or because they receive the appropriate stimulus, they activate the mechanism to enter into the cell cycle, and they duplicate most organelles during S (synthesis) phase, including their centrosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Here we discuss the role of p38 MAPK in the mediation of cell cycle checkpoints and cell survival, processes that have received less attention. (ijbs.com)
  • Replication processes permit the copying of a single DNA double helix into two DNA helices, which are divided into the daughter cells at mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase of the cell cycle, many of the DNA replication regulatory processes are initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell cycle checkpoints play an important role in the control system by sensing defects that occur during essential processes such as DNA replication or chromosome segregation, and inducing a cell cycle arrest in response until the defects are repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Eukaryotic DNA replication is a conserved mechanism that restricts DNA replication to once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic DNA replication of chromosomal DNA is central for the duplication of a cell and is necessary for the maintenance of the eukaryotic genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the cell cycle is built around ensuring that DNA replication occurs without errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of the origin recognition complex (ORC) with a replication origin is required to recruit both cell division cycle 6 protein (Cdc6) and chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 protein (Cdt1), which initiate the assembly of the pre-RC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to the eukaryotic cell cycle, the prokaryotic cell cycle (known as binary fission) is relatively simple and quick: the chromosome replicates from the origin of replication, a new membrane is assembled, and the cell wall forms a septum which divides the cell into two. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, during S phase all cells must duplicate their DNA very precisely, a process termed DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomes
  • Furthermore, haploinsufficient mammary epithelial cells illustrated misaligned chromosomes and abnormal segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the M (mitosis) phase, during which the duplicated chromosomes (known as the sister chromatids) separate into two daughter nuclei, and the cell divides into two daughter cells, each with a full copy of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the process of cell division, the spindle checkpoint prevents separation of the duplicated chromosomes until each chromosome is properly attached to the spindle apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to preserve the cell's identity and proper function, it is necessary to maintain the appropriate number of chromosomes after each cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • An error in generating daughter cells with fewer or greater number of chromosomes than expected (a situation termed aneuploidy), may lead in best case to cell death, or alternatively it may generate catastrophic phenotypic results. (wikipedia.org)
  • During mitosis or meiosis, the spindle checkpoint prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microtubules (MTs) are long proteic filaments, with asymmetric extremities: one end termed "minus" (-) end, relatively stable and close to the centrosome, and an end termed "plus" (+) end, with alternating phases of growth and retraction, exploring the center of the cell searching the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • Examples include: In cancer cells, aneuploidy is a frequent event, indicating that these cells present a defect in the machinery involved in chromosome segregation, as well as in the mechanism ensuring that segregation is correctly performed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism responsible for the correct distribution of sister chromatids during cell division is named chromosome segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To ensure that chromosome segregation takes place correctly, cells have developed a precise and complex mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • thereby
  • The complex then blocks the positive transcription factors clock (CLK) and cycle (CYC), thereby repressing the transcription of per. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • Despite its efficacy in cell culture, caffeine is not a viable choice as a clinical agent because the concentration required to abrogate arrest is far above the clinically achievable concentration. (aacrjournals.org)