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  • Chek2
  • CHEK2 directly phosphorylates and regulates the functions of p53 and BRCA1 2,3 . (cityofhope.org)
  • Two more CHEK2 gene mutations, CHEK2*S428F, an amino-acid substitution to the kinase domain in exon 11 and CHEK2*P85L, an amino-acid substitution in the N-terminal region (exon 1) have been found in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDKs
  • The main mechanism of action of the cell cycle checkpoints is through the regulation of the activities of a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which bind to different classes of regulator proteins known as cyclins, with specific cyclin-CDK complexes being formed and activated at different phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In late G1/early S phase, the pre-RC is activated for DNA unwinding by the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and DDK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon entry into S phase, the activity of the CDKs and the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) Cdc7 promotes the assembly of replication forks, likely in part by activating MCM2-7 to unwind DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Changed expression of Bcl-2 family proteins performs central roles in apoptosis dysregulation in cancer and leukemia, promoting malignant cell expansion and adding to chemoresistance. (neuroart2006.com)
  • Upon the decision to progress past the G1 checkpoint, cyclin D levels rise, and cyclin D forms a complex with CDK4 and CDK6, which in turn phosphorylate the pocket proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bcl-2 proteins are layered on the surface of the mitochondria, detect damage, and activate a class of proteins called Bax, which punch holes in the mitochondrial membrane, causing cytochrome C to leak out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora
  • The premature termination of M phase was found to be a consequence of precocious inactivation of SAC caused by a direct inhibitory effect of the compound on Aurora B kinase in vitro and in cells. (oup.com)
  • The compound also targets Aurora A kinase and tubulin in vitro and in cells, which can explain the observed spindle anomalies. (oup.com)
  • The reduced activity of Aurora B kinase resulted in polyploidy and suppression of cancer cell viability. (oup.com)
  • The aurora kinases were first identified in 1990 during a cDNA screen of Xenopus eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinase discovered, Eg2, is now referred to as Aurora A. It was not until 1998, however, that Aurora A's meiotic and mitotic importance was realized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human genome contains three members the Aurora kinase family: Aurora A kinase, Aurora B kinase and Aurora C kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Xenopus, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans genomes, on the other hand, contain orthologues only to Aurora A and Aurora B. In all studied species, the three Aurora mitotic kinases localize to the centrosome during different phases of mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora A and Aurora B kinases play important roles in mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Aurora A kinase is associated with centrosome maturation and separation and thereby regulates spindle assembly and stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the cell cycle progresses, concentrations of Aurora A increase and the kinase associates with the mitotic poles and the adjacent spindle microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of the former, it has been suggested that Aurora A cooperates with the kinase Nek2 in Xenopus to dissolves the structure tethering the cell's centrosomes together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora B kinase is a protein that functions in the attachment of the mitotic spindle to the centromere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Aurora kinases associate with microtubules during chromosome movement and segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aurora kinase B localizes to microtubules near kinetochores, specifically to the specialized microtubules called K-fibers, and Aurora kinase A (MIM 603072) localizes to centrosomes (Lampson et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1998, Aurora kinase B was identified in humans by a polymerase chain reaction screen for kinases that are overexpressed in cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the same year, rat Aurora kinase B was identified in a screen designed to find kinases that altered S. cerevisiae proliferation when overexpressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • INCENP stimulates Aurora B kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, cells deficient in topoisomerase II show significantly reduced Aurora B kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intriguingly, EB1 overexpression enhances Aurora B kinase activity, at least in part because EB1 blocks the dephosphorylation/inactivation of Aurora B by protein phosphatase 2A. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numerous kinetochore targets of Aurora kinases have been determined in organisms ranging from yeast to man. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The mechanism of action of the three platinum drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA), as well as structurally related platinum(II) complexes, can be divided into four distinct sequential processes: (i) cellular uptake, (ii) aquation/activation, (iii) DNA platination, and (iv) cellular processing leading to apoptosis ( figure 2 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Regulates cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, particularly to DNA double-strand breaks. (abcam.com)
  • catalytic
  • This protein is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is essential for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions of eukaryotic cell cycle. (antibodies-online.com)
  • It is a catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, whose activity is restricted to the G1-S phase, and essential for cell cycle G1/S phase transition. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Activation
  • The non-receptor-type tyrosine kinase c-Abl functions as a cytoplasmic signal transducer upon activation of cell-surface receptors. (biochemj.org)
  • novel
  • Novel pyrimidine-2,4-d. (oup.com)
  • In this study, we describe the cellular effects of a novel pyrimidine-2,4-diamine derivative that we discovered to inhibit the. (oup.com)
  • bub1b
  • AP2B1 has been shown to interact with: AP1M2, Arrestin beta 2, BUB1B, LDLRAP1 and TGF beta receptor 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point in mammalian cells and the start point in yeast, is the point at which the cell becomes committed to entering the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 . (springer.com)
  • Gene
  • This new fusion gene, BCR-ABL, encodes an unregulated, cytoplasm-targeted tyrosine kinase that allows the cells to proliferate without being regulated by cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • The coordination of the clock and cell division through cell cycle checkpoints, supports the clock s integral role in basic cell biology, conclude the researchers. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Conclusions/Significance: The lipid kinase SphK1 plays a positive and essential role in the growth and development of malignant mesothelioma and is therefore a likely therapeutic target. (docplayer.net)
  • Shugoshin is a crucial target of Bub1 kinase that plays a central role in the cohesion of chromosomes during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • The DNA-binding activity of the ubiquitously expressed ABL1 tyrosine kinase is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function for ABL1. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • Using a multi-walled carbon nanotubes induced peritoneal mesothelioma mouse model, we showed that the SphK12/2 null mice exhibited significantly less inflammation and granulamatous nodules compared to their wild type counterparts. (docplayer.net)
  • Second
  • Second generation BCR-ABL tyrosine-kinase inhibitors are also under development to inhibit BCR-ABL mutants resistant to imatinib. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). (cellsignal.com)