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  • expression
  • The DDR can also arouse the immune system by for example inducing the expression of antimicrobial peptides as well as ligands for receptors found on immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to decreased CHK2 activation in EDD-depleted cells, the expression of several key cell cycle mediators including Cdc25A/C and E2F1 was altered, suggesting that these checkpoint defects may be both CHK2-dependent and -independent. (garvan.org.au)
  • volume
  • This second edition volume provides detailed protocols on the theoretical background of cell cycle synchronization procedures and instructions on how to implement these techniques. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian
  • The G1 checkpoint, also known as the restriction point in mammalian cells and the start point in yeast, is the point at which the cell becomes committed to entering the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine researchers in the UI Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center have been awarded a five-year, $1.5 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to investigate a new hypothesis about how the mammalian cell cycle is regulated. (uiowa.edu)
  • regulation
  • Expansion of the Nek family throughout evolution has been accompanied by their broader involvement in checkpoint regulation and cilia biology. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the regulation of Cdc6p is tightly correlated to the activity of Cdk2 and since Cdk2-activity is oscillating once per cell cycle, the accumulation and degradation of Cdc6p also oscillates. (wikipedia.org)
  • defective
  • MA-11 cells did not show radiation-induced expression of the G 1 cell cycle inhibitor p21, indicative of a defective G 1 checkpoint and consistent with a point mutation detected in the tumor suppressor TP53 gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, Gö6976 potently abrogated S and G 2 arrest and enhanced the cytotoxicity of the topoisomerase I inhibitor SN38 only in p53-defective cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because a defective G1/S checkpoint in BRCA1 heterozygotes could lead to a greater proportion of S-phase cells with unrepaired DNA damage (strand breaks) and a resultant increase in chromosomal instability, the frequency of micronuclei induced by UVA was examined. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Conclusion Our data suggest a defective G1/S checkpoint in cells from BRCA1 heterozygotes in response to UVA although this is not reflected in genomic instability as measured by micronuclei induction after oxidative stress or MMC treatment. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • activates
  • The decision to commit to a new round of cell division occurs when the cell activates cyclin-CDK-dependent transcription which promotes entry into S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • CHK2
  • No. R1536 shows detection of a predominant band at ~60 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated CHK2 (arrowhead) in MCF-7 whole cell lysates after treatment with doxorubicin. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Chk2 bearing the activating phosphorylation on threonine-68 accumulates in BRCA1 nuclear bodies when the cells arrest at the G2/M boundary. (uu.nl)
  • In another, completely different model of mitotic catastrophe, namely 14.3.3 -deficient HCT116 colon carcinoma cells treated with doxorubicin, Chk2 activation was also found to be deficient as compared to 14.3.3 -sufficient controls. (uu.nl)
  • regulatory
  • Zetterberg A and Larsson O (1985) Kinetic analysis of regulatory events in G1 leading to proliferation or quiescence of Swiss 3T3 cells. (els.net)
  • This presents a regulatory problem for the cell: switching the checkpoint to an inactive state after it has performed its function. (harvard.edu)
  • the feedback circuit provides an example of a simple mechanism the cell can use to help solve this regulatory problem. (harvard.edu)
  • As in the mitotic cycle, these transitions are regulated by combinations of gene regulatory factors, cyclin-Cdk complex and the APC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of cdc25 arrests cells in G2, but still allows activation of the G2-M checkpoint, implicating activation of wee1 and deactivation of cdc25 as important regulatory steps in the checkpoint. (wikipedia.org)
  • activation
  • Remedy with alisertib up-controlled outrageous style p53 in Granta-519 MCL cells specifying G0/G1 arrest consequent to G2/M checkpoint activation. (immune-source.com)
  • The tumor cell defense response to ionizing radiation involves activation of cell cycle checkpoint signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, Cdc6p overexpression in primary cells may promote DNA hyperreplication and induce a senescence response similar to that caused by oncogene activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The export of Whi5 results in the partial activation of the transcription factors SBF and MBF, which ultimately promote cell cycle progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • These transcription factors promote Cln1/2 expression, and enhance the cell cycle response by forming a positive feedback loop, as Cln1/2 promotes SBF activation and Whi5 export. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclin
  • The formation of the cyclin E-CDK2 complex then promotes a positive feedback loop which creates an "all or nothing" switch from which the cell can not return. (wikipedia.org)
  • defects
  • In contrast, cancer cells with defects in redox-sensitive checkpoints will continue to proliferate,' explained Goswami, who also is a co-director of the Free Radical Research Core in the Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center at the UI. (uiowa.edu)
  • initiation of cell
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Furthermore, xanthatin blocked phosphorylation of NF-κB (p65) and IκBa, which might also contribute to its pro-apoptotic effects on A549 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • The most common function is found during the cell cycle when mutations occur because it becomes activated without phosphorylation and turns on Cds1. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • This system acts like a timer, or a clock, which sets a fixed amount of time for the cell to spend in each phase of the cell cycle, while at the same time it also responds to information received from the processes it controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we discuss the role of p38 MAPK in the mediation of cell cycle checkpoints and cell survival, processes that have received less attention. (ijbs.com)
  • A recent proposal suggests CDK acts as a master regulator of cell-cycle processes that have the potential for autonomous oscillatory behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • radiation
  • From the relapsed and refractory establishing, salvage radiation treatment and car originate-cell transplantation outcomes are exceedingly weak for clients with MYC sickness (CORAL study: Team up Trial offer in Relapsed Competitive Lymphoma), where by 75Percent sufferers had Species of fish evidence of DHL. (immune-source.com)
  • Cell cycle arrest protects cells from the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents and insults such as ionizing radiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gemcitabine progresses through a similar mechanism, causing cells in the S-phase to disrepair DNA damage caused by the radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathway
  • Normally CHK2 is involved in the signal response pathway that begins when DNA is damaged and results in a temporary stoppage of cell division until the damage is fixed. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Here, we combine RNAi screening and in vitro evolution approaches to demonstrate that cytokinesis failure activates the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in cultured cells, as well as in naturally occurring tetraploid cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Hippo pathway key to ploidy checkpoint. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, activation of p16 through the ROS pathway, DNA damage, or senescence leads to the buildup of p16 in tissues and is implicated in aging of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a mutation in a caretaker gene coding for a DNA repair pathway that leads to the inability to properly repair DNA damage could allow uncontrolled cell growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Additionally, our outcomes also claim that TRPC3 shows up as a fresh mediator of breasts cancer tumor cell migration/invasion and represents a potential focus on for a fresh course of anticancer agent. (cancercurehere.com)
  • Within this research, we discovered the functional appearance of TRPC3 in individual MCF-7 breasts cancer tumor cell-mediated Ca2+ entrance. (cancercurehere.com)
  • RxPG] Dartmouth Medical School geneticists have discovered that DNA damage resets the cellular circadian clock, suggesting links among circadian timing, the cycle of cell division, and the propensity for cancer. (rxpgnews.com)
  • 4 Program in Cancer and Stem Cell Biology, Duke-National University of Singapore (NUS) Medical School, Singapore. (sciencemag.org)
  • Only one HDAC inhibitor, suberonylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), marketed as Zolinza (vorinostat) has been approved by US Foods and Drugs Administration (FDA) for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/druginfo/fdavorinostat) . (docplayer.net)
  • Interestingly, nocodazole has been shown to decrease the oncogenic potential of cancer cells via another microtubules-independent mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reduction in the division and production of stem cells protects against cancer while increasing the risks associated with cellular senescence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations resulting in deletion or reduction of function of the CDKN2A gene are associated with increased risk of a wide range of cancers and alterations of the gene are frequently seen in cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homozygous deletion of p16 are frequently found in esophageal cancer and gastric cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other area of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mitogens are important in cancer research due to their effects on the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer is in part defined by a lack of, or failure of, control in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the centuries it was discovered that cancer could occur anywhere in the body, but Hippocrates' humor-theory based treatment remained popular until the 19th century with the discovery of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • endothelial cell
  • In the mid-1990s, my research group began to devise a method to establish endothelial cell cultures from human peripheral blood, with an ultimate goal of examining interindividual heterogeneity of endothelial biology. (jci.org)
  • interphase
  • G1 phase ends when the cell moves into the S phase of interphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8). (cellsignal.com)
  • Mutations are replicated when the cell replicates. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, infrequent mutations that provide a survival advantage will tend to clonally expand at the expense of neighboring cells in the tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • He suggested that mutations of the chromosomes could generate a cell with unlimited growth potential which could be passed on to its descendants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations in ERβ have been shown to influence cardiomyocytes, the cells that comprise the largest part of the heart, and can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Non-proliferative (non-dividing) cells in multicellular eukaryotes generally enter the quiescent G0 state from G1 and may remain quiescent for long periods of time, possibly indefinitely (as is often the case for neurons). (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Profiling novel sulfonamide antitumor agents with cell-based phenotypic screens and array-based gene expression analysis. (naver.com)
  • The notion that the clock regulates DNA-damage input and that mutation can affect the clock as well as the cell cycle is novel. (rxpgnews.com)
  • chromosomes
  • During the final stage, cytokinesis, the chromosomes and cytoplasm separate into two new daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • M phase is itself composed of two tightly coupled processes: karyokinesis, in which the cell's chromosomes are divided, and cytokinesis, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides forming two daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumor cells arise from two distinct classes of genomic instability: mutational instability arising from changes in the nucleotide sequence of DNA and chromosomal instability arising from improper rearrangement of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • centriole
  • Centriole duplication occurs only once per cell cycle, thus ensuring accurate control of centriole numbers to maintain genomic integrity. (pnas.org)
  • leukaemia
  • There are an array of clinical variants of the disease, ranging from the asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smouldering MM, to the more aggressive active MM and plasma cell leukaemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microtubules
  • Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect in cells by interfering with the polymerization of microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These functional Golgi ministacks remain distributed about the cell, unable to track forward to form a perinuclear Golgi since nocodazole has depolymerized the microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • bone marrow
  • Truly endothelial, BOEC are progeny of a transplantable cell that originates in bone marrow, a putative endothelial progenitor. (jci.org)
  • role
  • TRRAP has a central role in MYC (c-Myc) transcription activation, and also participates in cell transformation by MYC. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in the determination of cell fates during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb protein signaling plays a key role in binary cell fate decisions following asymmetric cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Numb exerts its functional role on cell fate decisions by antagonizing Notch signaling activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • While ERα has a more profound role in regeneration after myocyte cell death, ERβ can still help by increasing endothelial progenitor cell activation and subsequent cardiac function. (wikipedia.org)
  • ERβ also plays a role in regulating APOE, a risk factor for AD that redistributes lipids across cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • The kit can be used to track the pluripotent potential of human embryonic stem (ES) or induced pluripotent (iPS) cells. (cellsignal.com)
  • cyclins
  • The point where mitogens are no longer needed to move the cell cycle forward is called the "restriction point" and depends on cyclins to be passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process cascades onwards, producing other cyclins which stimulate the cell sufficiently to allow reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction point
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • In a population of cells, mutant cells will increase or decrease in frequency according to the effects of the mutation on the ability of the cell to survive and reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given these properties of DNA damage and mutation, it can be seen that DNA damages are a special problem in non-dividing or slowly dividing cells, where unrepaired damages will tend to accumulate over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluorescence
  • Adjustments in the Ca2+ focus had been indicated as F/F, where F was the fluorescence strength when cells had been at rest, and F was the modification in fluorescence during excitement. (cancercurehere.com)
  • immune
  • These results showed that epigenetic changes of provirus facilitated ATL cells to evade host immune system by suppressing viral gene transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such inactivation of Tax expression is considered to allow ATL cells to escape from the host immune system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it is also recognized as a mechanism for virus-infected cells to escape from the host immune system and establish the latent state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review focuses on the clinical potential of bispecific antibodies as immune effector cell engagers in the onco-immunotherapy field. (mdpi.com)
  • We summarize current strategies targeting various immune cells and their clinical interests. (mdpi.com)
  • The underlying cause of his results might be that infection stimulates the immune system to destroy left tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. (springer.com)
  • divisions
  • Extensive pedigree analysis at the single‐cell level demonstrated that two consecutive divisions are required to produce one switched cell among four related cousins. (embopress.org)
  • mechanism
  • These findings define an important tumor suppression mechanism and uncover adaptive mechanisms potentially available to nascent tumor cells that bypass this inhibitory regulation. (nih.gov)
  • Mitogens can contribute to this by causing the cell cycle to move forward when it should be prevented by some mechanism. (wikipedia.org)